The cold war was an indirect war between two superior states, USA andUSSR. It started after Second World War II in 1947 and ended in 1991.In 1943 there was a Casablanca conference where President Franklinassured Americans that there was no separation with the Soviet Union(Dobrynin 9). There were conflicts, threats and rivalry between bigcities in America, Russia and some part of Vietnam. At the startthere were propagandas to bring division in the united nation,including the anti-Communism speech by British leader WinstonChurchill in March 1946.
Primarily, the USSR and the U.S found themselves in the Cold Warbecause there was a conflict between their two ideologies Capitalismand communism. The Americans were afraid of communist attack.Communism can be said it started in 1917 or in 1920s during theRussian Revolution (Dobrynin 12). It is then when Lenin andBolsheviks joined hands to spread Communism in Western Russia andsome parts of Europe. Unfortunately, they were not successful, butwere defeated by Soviet war, which was between 1919 and 1921.
Additionally, the two nations found themselves in the cold warbecause of the way the World War II ended in 1945. This happenedafter Stalin, who ended the World War II on Allied side was betrayedby Hitler in 1941. There was evidenced tension between western powerswho won World War II and the USSR (Sakwa 31). The USSR tried toincorporate parts of Germany and some countries in the east ofGermany an act that made Americans and British hesitate. TheAmericans hesitated because they wanted Germany to be a free andopened country so that they can have a good market for their productswhile the British feared the Soviet in Europe (Gaddis 11). The Sovietthat was present in Europe stood in the way for Americans and Britishas well. George Patton once the American General noted that shouldhave gone ahead to Moscow when American was in Berlin.
In 1945 the victorious World War II United States and Soviet Unionbecame allies, which lead them to victory over the Adolf Hitler’sNazi empire in Europe. After a few years, this ally between theUnited States and Soviet Union became great enemies. As a result ofthis enmity there was a global struggle in politics, economics, in amilitary and ideologically, which lead to cold war (Sakwa 7). In 1943there was evident tension which later grew into the Cold War. Thistension grew more evident when the big three allied leaders Americanpresident Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister WinstonChurchill and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin had met in Tehran toharmonize the strategy.
The two nations went into cold war because of their involvement inEuropean politics. America felt that an immediate action needed to betaken to answer the increased threat by Soviet in Western Europe.This action includes diplomatic, military and economic strategiesused to stop the spread of communism by executing ‘’containment’’by the United State in Europe (Sakwa 7). Truman was informed inFebruary 1947 that London had stopped to support Greece in theanti-communist war. When Truman had this he responded by announcingthe Truman Doctrine that was purposely to help Greece and Turkey. Thecongress gave ago ahead to this decision and $300 million went toassist Greece and $100 million went to help turkey.
At the same time Europeans so terrified by the war and people werefreezing and going with no food to eat and the country credit wasgoing down to zero. This made George Marshall to come up with a planmainly to offer economic assistance in the European country in 1947after World War II (Dobrynin 21). Marshall Plan was able to providearound $13 billion, with grants and loans to 17 countries. Stalinwanted to hold what he had tight and build a dividing wall betweenEurope, which contributed part of the ‘’containment’’ of theSoviets expansion.
In April 4, 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formedby America to help Europe and to protect and to stop expansion of theSoviet Union. This organization was formed after the events that hadtaken place in Europe. It was too late for Stalin by the time hecould raise the Berlin blockade and all his plans failed after allhis hopes were turned down (Gaddis 43). The North Atlantic treatyorganization finally resulted in Stalin downfall in his plans tocontrol of the Europeans.
The USSR and United States of America foundthemselves in a cold war because of consistent fear and suspicionover each other. The development of the USSR in a strong economy anda stable country created a lot of suspicion by the Americans. Theyfeared that the communist bloc, the USSR was getting stronger enoughto launch attacks against the United States and its allies(Gaddis 45). Therefore, the Americans found itbetter to engage the USSR in a cold war that would keep the restingpotential of the communists to attack. On the other hand, USSRthought that they should keep replying the threats by the Americans.They also feared that Americans would use their atomic power toattack them. Therefore, the communist kept an alert response forevery conflict that Americans involved themselves in.
The two powers, the USSR and the U.S foundthemselves in a cold war because of a growing dislike of the leadersof each of the blocs. The American leader at the time, Harry Trumanhad a strong dislike of Stalin, the USSR leader (Gaddis 17).This is because of the American notion thatStalin was a ruthless leader and a possible dictator. This informedthe actions of the U.S leader to constantly oppose whatever policiesthat Stalin adopted. In an extreme case of dislike, Truman furtherfinanced any nation or country that Stalin set to control or vestUSSR’s actions in. As a consequence, the two leaders led the twoantagonistic blocs into a state of cold war.
The two political powers forum themselves in astate of cold war because they developed the ideological differencesbetween them into actions and policies against each other(Gaddis 23). The USSR vehemently dislikedcapitalism and was ready to protect their allies and territoriesagainst the western influence. Finally the other cause of thecold war, which was probably the latest cause, is the acquisition ofknowledge by Soviet to make nuclear weapons in 1947 (Gaddis 25). Itis believed that soviet caused the cold war when they challengedAmericans with their nuclear power they revealed during the end ofthe World War II at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Generally cold warinvolved a lot of technology, especially nuclear technology.
It is important to note as the world seeks to know why the USSR andthe U.S were in the cold war, there is no definite cause of theconflict. The cold war was an ideological conflict that grew fromWorld War II, which grew out of the World War II. Therefore, is goodto know that the emergence of the cold war was because of ideologicaldifferences as well as quest for dominance over the world by the twopowers, the USSR and the U.S. Therefore, a cold conflict was not thecause of the war, but it explains the elements of successiveconflicts that formed the cold war.
Dobrynin, Anatoly. In Confidence: Moscow`s Ambassador to Six ColdWar Presidents. University of Washington Press, Print, 2001
Gaddis, John. The Cold War: A New History. Penguin Press,Print, 2005
Sakwa, Richard. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, 1917–1991.Routledge, Print, 1999.