Venn Diagrams





  1. Represent the following sentences on a two circle Venn diagram. Clearly label the circles.

  1. Some ALDS games are not on TBS.

LetSet X represent TBS and set Y represent ALDS games respectively. Atthe point of intersection between X and Y sets, we represent it by‘XUY’. In order to demonstrate some games which are not in TBS,we take the whole set Y and subtract it from the union of X and Y.The shaded area (Y-(XUY) illustrates some games not represented inTBS.

NB:‘U means union

XUY-ALDS games represented in TBS, whilst Y-(XUY) – ALDS games notrepresented in TBS

  1. Nobody that saves for retirement regrets it

Inthe above context, we have those

whosave and those who don’t save.

Thetwo are mutually exclusive and

therefore,they are represented by


  1. Every rational person maximizes expected utility

Arational consumer is indicated by the area

AUB,whereby he consumes a combination

ofproduct A and B in order to get maximum


  1. Some consumers are more influenced by a change in price than by the price itself

RegionA represents the price itself

Whilstregion B represents a change

inprice. Therefore, B is a subset of A

  1. It’s not true that all impulse purchases are emotion-based

Theintersection of X and Y, the region named

XUYshows that some impulses are a

combinationof emotion and non-emotion

  1. Using a three-circle Venn diagram, check the following categorical arguments for validity.

  1. Some advertisers try to create a new ideal state for consumers. Some advertisers try to create dissatisfaction with the consumer’s current state. So, some who try to create a new ideal state also try to create dissatisfaction with the current state

RegionAUB represents

Somewho try to create ideal state as well as create dissatisfaction withcurrent statuses

  1. No sophisticated diners leave their napkins on the table after they sit. Everyone who plans to stand to shake hands with late-comers leaves her napkin on the table after she sits. It follows that no one who plans to stand and shake hands with late-comers is a sophisticated diner.

RegionC indicates

Aregion of a sophisticated diner

C-Some businesses with fewer than twenty-five employees will notreceive a federal tax credit. This is true because, some businesswith fewer than twenty-five employees will not offer health insuranceto their employees, and all companies who offer health insurance totheir employees will receive a federal tax credit.

Theabove figure represents three sets which are disjointed. Region Arepresents a business that will not receive a federal tax credit.Likewise, region B represents a business which will not offer healthinsurance to employees. Finally, region C represents companies thatwill receive a federal tax.

  1. Some economies are agrarian. No developed economies are agrarian economies. So, some economies are not developed.

A- Represents agrarian Economies

B-Represents non-agrarian developed economies

C-Represents economies non-developed economies.

  1. All wars are fought for economic reasons. Some wars are fought for religious reasons. Therefore, some wars are both religious and economic.

Letus use X set to denote all wars. But within this bracket, there arewars that fight for economic reasons and those for religious reasonsdenoted by Y set and Z set respectively.

Therefore,YϹX, ZϹX, Ϲ means a subset.

Theregion where sets Y and X intersect represents wars that are eitherreligious or for economic reasons. It is indicated by ‘YUX’ inthe diagram below. Therefore X is a union set consisting of Y and Zsubsets.

  1. Consider the question: should prescription drugs be advertised directly to consumers? Any argument for an answer to the question is an argument for a normative conclusion. Look at this list of arguments for both answers to the question: Interesting as the arguments are, none of them have normative premises. Pick (any) one argument from each side and reconstruct it (paraphrasing to simplify is fine) adding the most plausible normative premise you can that makes the argument valid.

Advertisingdrugs directly to consumers is opposed because research demonstratesthat it has lead overdose of drugs in the society. Furthermore, itpromotes use of drugs and slurs normal conditions as well as bodyfunctions.

  1. Construct an argument that justifies either an affirmative or negative answer to this question: Is it morally acceptable for executives of Toys “R” Us to ask their employees to act in the way described below? The case comes from the sixth edition of Ethics and the Conduct of Business by John Boatwright (Pearson, 2009, p.11).


Allemployees bought child world inventory off the shelves during apromotion. This is because some employees were accused of selectingproducts sold by Child World close to cost. So some employees boughtworld inventory of the shelves as well as selecting products sold byChildWorld close to cost