Unsafe Patient to Nurse Ratio

UNSAFE PATIENT TO NURSE RATIO 10

UnsafePatient to Nurse Ratio

AnnotatedBibliography

Ellis,J., &amp Clements, D. (2006). `Nurse staffing and patient safety:ratios and beyond`. Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.), 9(3),18-20.

Thearticle seeks to illustrate on the safety of patients in the Canadianadverse events and the shortage of nursing. It is based on the effectto the spotlight of nurses to patient’s ratios. According to Ellis,the ratio of nurses to patients has a weaker link to other factorssuch as diversity, leadership, and level of nurses’ education. Theideas relates to the ethics in solving the ratio. The article acts asa revelation on nursing ratios and provides probable ways of solvinginherent issues.

Welton,J. (2007). `Mandatory hospital nurse to patient staffing ratios: Timeto take a different approach.` The Online Journal of Issues inNursing, 12(3).

Thearticle addresses the issues relating to mandatory ratios ofinpatient nurses-to-patient staffing. The author argues that theUnited States congress should lobby a legislation that enacts laws toimprove on the overall hospitals working conditions. The studyproposes the minimum nurse to patient ratio such as those beingpracticed in California. The concerns of harming patients due toinadequate staffing should also be addressed. The harming is relatedto the complexity of acre and severity of illness. However, imposingof the national mandatory ratios is subjected to increase the overallcosts of care. In addition, the author argues that the necessaryratios, if increased, may not necessarily improve the quality ofhospitalization.

Thecosts are expected to initiate additional registered nurses neededfor higher mandatory ratios. The costs may not be offset by theadditional of hospital payments. Likewise, the costs are likely tolead to unfunded mandates. Welton argues that the best alternative isto provide market-based incentives in optimizing nurse staff inhospitals. The aim of thus optimization is to unbundle nurse care toboard charges from the current room. Similarly, there should bebilling of nurses according to individual patients’ care timepower. In addition, it is proposed that hospital payments should beadjusted to facilitate optimum nursing care. Revenue code data of theinpatient`s nurse care should be evaluated and to account forperformance due to case mix in the hospital. The national nursingorganization has already endorsed such power adjustments. Similarly,efforts on the same have been initiated. The article further suggestsvarious aspects such as nursing intensity billing, funding to pay fornursing intensity billing, and further identification of otherbillings.

Isgur,B. (Panelist). (2008, gust). Conference of State based NursingWorkforce Centers Explores Retention Issues and Solutions.SixthNational Conference of Workforce Leaders. Effective Retentionthroughout the Career Continuum.&quot Retrieved from www.NursingWorld.org.

Isgurargues that the nursing profession is experiencing unendurableshortages in terms of nurses to patient’s ratios. Organizationstend to be having difficulties in recruiting nursing staff. Accordingto the U.S Bureau of labor and statistics, the demand for registerednurses has grown grow rapidly between 2008 and 2018.

Gindel,C., and Hagerstrom, G. (2009). &quotNurses Nurturing Nurses:Outcomes and Lessons Learned.&quot MEDSURG Nursing, 18(3), 183.

Theresearchers believe the new number of graduates might fill the gap.However, scholars argue that the projections might not be ideal. Thenumbers of the graduating nurses appear to be less than the nurses’shortage. Shortage in nursing reduces safety and care of patients.Similarly, the nurses are prone to be distressed, dissatisfied, andoverwhelmed. The adequate nursing staffing of nurses can also lead tojob burnout and frustrations that may be linked to high turnover. Lownurse to patient’s ratio appears to be the result of negative rolesin patient’s outcome. Studies reveal that hospitals with low nurseto patient’s ratios have low rates in the risk-adjusted mortalitythat affects the severity-adjusted length of stay. Studies show thatleadership and administrative positions should examine and researchon factors that lead to a shortage of nurse’s ratio to patients.Thereafter, the results should be reviewed to understand how they canbe used to improve the current condition.

Borkowski,N., Amann, R., Song, S. H., &amp Weiss, C. (2007). `Nurses` intentto leave the profession: issues related to gender, ethnicity, andeducational level.` Health care management review, 32(2), 160-167.

Thearticle reveals that nurses desire early retirements. This is becausethey want to decrease workload, flexibility, and freedom schedules.In addition, senior nurses feel that their companies undervalue them.Situations of disappointment, dissatisfaction, and evendisillusionment are some of the reasons behind nurses quitting.Solving the issue requires that factors such as job satisfaction,disillusionment and dissatisfaction be key roles in nursing. Thereshould be approval, satisfaction, and more of expectations thatrelate to job satisfaction. They should involve nurses’recognitions by offering rewards and branding.

Kovner,Brewer, Greene, and Fairchild. (2009). `Changing Work Needs of NewRNs: Literature Review.` Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(1).

Dissatisfactionis one of the strenuous dilemmas in a nursing profession. Nurses tendto be overworked and stressed to a point of becoming ill. The dilemmaaffects much on the personal health of individual nurses. Nurses thatare not motivated mostly appear unhappy and are mostly absent andsometimes may quit their career for other preferred jobs.

Researchersare working on potential solutions for solving the nurse’sshortage. Similarly, they are also trying to examine the causes. Arecent study on job satisfaction attempted to determine what retainsand entices nurses. According to respondent’s feedbacks, valuing,entrepreneurial, and balanced work life seemed better reasons foraddressing the issue. The findings suggest that an environment thattends to nurture autonomy and advancement may attract younger nurseprofessions. Similarly, job sharing, work scheduling and shortershifts act as motivation to veteran nurses.

Haley-Lock,A. (2008). ` How workers` career orientations and job satisfactionrelate in grassroots human services.` Journal of Community Practice,16(2), 143-163.

Accordingto Haley-Lock (2008), who examined the decrements in registerednursing satisfaction, the mid careers are the most that benefit fromthe efforts of retaining nurses. Retaining nurses should be byinvesting in sectors that result into favorable job satisfaction suchas fulfillment, staffing, pay, and benefits. The factors seem morerelevant as they apply on the Social Exchange Theory, which suggestthat benefits of existing employees are outweighed by costs.Therefore, employees seek careers that are more rewarding. Moreturnovers tend to be expensive leading to supersede the annual RNsalary. The scholar believes that job tension, emotional exhaustion,and stressful work situations are likely to affect job satisfaction.

Blakeley,J., and Ribera, V. (2008). &quotEarly Retirement among RegisteredNurses: Contributing Factors.&quot Journal of Nursing Management,16(1), 29–37.

Thearticle confirms that there are two primary strategies used forsolving discrepancies in supply and demand of nurses. They includeimportation of nurses from other relevant countries and increasingnursing program enrolments. The last one is controversial given thatshortages tend to affect most of the world countries. Therefore,increasing nursing student’s enrolment to curb the deficit hassubstantially failed. American association of colleges of nursingsignifies that nursing schools should increase the number ofgraduates by at least 90 percent to curb the shortage.

Thearticle examines what motivates nurses to remain on their currentposition. According to the author, the factors include workload,scheduling, autonomy, management leadership skills, peerrelationship, and home duties. Concentrating on factors that entailnurses’ job satisfaction can solve the issue of nurse to patients’ratio. Therefore, workload, scheduling and other related factorsneeds attention. Recent studies prove that these factors contributemore on solving nurse shortages. Most corporations seem to featureonly on recruitment and retention, and always aim at satisfying theirstaff through empowerments.

Cummings,G. G., Olson, K., Hayduk, L.,Fitch, M., Green, E., &amp Conlon, M.(2008). `The relationship between nursing leadership and nurses` jobsatisfaction in Canadian oncology work environments.` Journal ofnursing management, 16(5), 508-518.

Accordingto Cummings et al. (2008), improvement in nurse staffing depends onthe focus of maintenance, recruitment, and retention. The researchstudy suggests that there is a need to build policies that promoteretention and recruitment of young adults into a nursing profession.Similarly, the nursing profession should be regarded as a high levelof technical knowledge and pertinent scientific, as well as apersonal aspect. The initiative may appeal more youth or the moreperceived diverse applicants to join the career. In addition, nurseleaders should sustain and create environmental friendly conditionsfor its staff. The author also believes that maintaining publicrelation, examining hiring process, and engaging staff contributionsare some of the elements reliable in solving dilemma.

AmericanAssociation of Colleges of Nursing. (2009, September 28). &quotNursingShortage Fact Sheet&quot (9-09.DOC). USA: AACN

Thestudy reveals that nurses always report higher job satisfaction whenengaged in a participatory team. This makes them feel a sense ofbelonging. However, age tends to contribute to the issue at hand. Atcertain age, nurses feel tired and always feel it is better to seekretirement. Most of the senior nurses always feel less satisfied.Researchers suggest that older nurses should always be satisfied toremain relevant. They should be rewarded either through monetary orother benefits. There are various studies done on satisfaction ofveteran nurses and how to retain them. They reveal that the skillednurses prefer part-time jobs, shorter shifts, and reference to lessacute patients. On the contrary, younger nurses prefer more vacationsand a flexible schedule. Klug’s research support that, both youngerand older nurses could benefit from policies and programs thatsupport job retentions. Nurse at any age who feel they areappreciated and always recognized feel satisfied.

Coshow,S. , Davis, P., &amp Wolosin, R. J. (2008). The`big dip`: decrementsin RN satisfaction at mid-career. Nursing economic, 27(1), 15-18.

Scholarsreveal that there are a high number of nurses who quit their job forearly retirement. Similarly, more nursing students end up quittingstudies. Strict measures are initiated to solve the situation. Theolder nurses should be provided with friendly working environment.Nursing students are supposed to be supported with generous educationprograms. Various models should be introduced to help pimp nursing asa desirable job. Portraying nurse career as attractive may lead toincreased programs development and student enrolment. There shouldalso be freedom of career choice.

Zurmehly,J. (2008). `The relationship of educational preparation, autonomy,and critical thinking to nursing job satisfaction.` Journal of thecontinuing education in nursing, 39(10), 453-460.

Accordingto Zurmehly (2008), baby boomer nurses who retire are not readilyabsorbed. However, if changes do occur and support retention of theolder nurses, the dilemma can be solved. The retention can behelpful, but the profession should be ready to account from theireventuality absence. In addition, health care systems should mainlyfocus on recruitment and retention of nurses. The motive will lead topositive employment brand that not only entices the new applicants,but also the aged nurses.

References

AmericanAssociation of Colleges of Nursing. (2009, September 28). &quotNursingShortage Fact Sheet&quot (9-09.DOC). USA: AACN

Blakeley,J., and Ribera, V. (2008). &quotEarly Retirement among RegisteredNurses: Contributing Factors.&quot Journal of Nursing Management,16(1), 29–37.

Borkowski,N., Amann, R., Song, S. H., &amp Weiss, C. (2007). `Nurses` intentto leave the profession: issues related to gender, ethnicity, andeducational level.` Health care management review, 32(2), 160-167.

Coshow,S. , Davis, P., &amp Wolosin, R. J. (2008). The`big dip`: decrementsin RN satisfaction at mid-career. Nursing economic, 27(1), 15-18.

Cummings,G. G., Olson, K., Hayduk, L.,Fitch, M., Green, E., &amp Conlon, M.(2008). `The relationship between nursing leadership and nurses` jobsatisfaction in Canadian oncology work environments.` Journal ofnursing management, 16(5), 508-518.

Ellis,J., &amp Clements, D. (2006). `Nurse staffing and patient safety:ratios and beyond`. Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.), 9(3),18-20.

Gindel,C., and Hagerstrom, G. (2009). &quotNurses Nurturing Nurses:Outcomes and Lessons Learned.&quot MEDSURG Nursing, 18(3), 183.

Haley-Lock,A. (2008). ` How workers` career orientations and job satisfactionrelate in grassroots human services.` Journal of Community Practice,16(2), 143-163.

Isgur,B. (Panelist). (2008, gust). Conference of State based NursingWorkforce Centers Explores Retention Issues and Solutions.SixthNational Conference of Workforce Leaders. Effective Retentionthroughout the Career Continuum.&quot Retrieved from www.NursingWorld.org.

Welton,J. (2007). `Mandatory hospital nurse to patient staffing ratios: Timeto take a different approach.` The Online Journal of Issues inNursing, 12(3).

Kovner,Brewer, Greene, and Fairchild. (2009). `Changing Work Needs of NewRNs: Literature Review.` Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(1).

Zurmehly,J. (2008). `The relationship of educational preparation, autonomy,and critical thinking to nursing job satisfaction.` Journal of thecontinuing education in nursing, 39(10), 453-460.