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Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet

PSY/103 Version 7

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Originsof Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet

PartI: Origins of Psychology

Withinpsychology, there are several perspectives used to describe, predict,and explain human behavior. The seven major perspectives in modernpsychology are psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanist, cognitive,neuroscientific/biopsychological, evolutionary, and sociocultural.Describe the perspectives, using two to three sentences each. Selectone major figure associated with one of the perspectives and describehis or her work in two to three sentences. Type your response in thespace below.

  • Psychoanalyticis a model introduced by Fred Sigmund who based his ideas on interpretative methods and clinical observations. This approach attempts to describe the mind and interpretive human experience.

  • Behaviorist is the theory used to describe human characteristics and behaviors(Moore, 2013).The genes are the most significant aspect used in determining the behaviors or characters that human beings possess.

  • Humanistpsychology is an approach that focuses on unique human issues. It attempts to determine the unconscious drives in human beings that motivates human behavior.

  • Cognitiveis an approach of psychology that focuses on mental development process of human beings. This includes attention deficit, use of language, memory and other cognitive skills.

  • Neuroscientific/biopsychologicalfocus on the biological processes, physiology and chemical process in the brain to determine how they influence human behavior.

  • Evolutionary is a model in psychology that stems from the work of Charles Darwin who argues that natural forces select traits that are adaptive to the survival of an organism (Carpenter, &ampHuffman, 2013). This modelexamines psychological traits such as language and attempt to identify those traits that evolves through adaptations.

  • Sociocultural attempts to focus on social aspect that are linked with personality, mind, culture and attached values(Ratner, 2014).This modelexamines the connections between developing societies and the culture in which they live.

Oneof the major figure associated with Behaviorist is B.F Skinner.Skinner is a psychological theorists who is well recognized for hiswork of operant conditioning principles. Skinner believes that theenvironment is the determinant of human behavior.

PartII: Research Methods

Describeresearch methods used in psychology by completing the followingtable. Then, select two of the research methods, and compare andcontrast them. Your response must be at least 75 words.

Method

Purpose

Strengths

Weaknesses

Example

Experimental

Helps in determining the behavior of human beings or animals through lab experiments

Offer the cause-and-effect relationships

Can provide biased results about the behavior

Determining the positive and negative responses of human behavior in an operant conditioning experiment

Descriptive

Offer simple explanation on different behaviors in human beings

Can offer detailed analysis and information about human behaviors

Can produce biased and exaggerated information

Describing the reasons as to why some children develop neurological or mental disorders

Correlational

Allows testing of predicted relationships between two or more variables

Effective in predicting results

Cannot draw inferences about the casual relationships among the variables.

Examining the behaviorof a twin and adopted child in an environment

Biological

Used for conducting laboratory experiments to determine behavior

Offer reliable information about the behavior of human being

Can offer unbiased results

Conducting lab test to determine the cause of brain or mental disorders

PartIII: The Brain

Studyingthe functions and elements of the brain is essential to understandinghuman behavior. Watch the CyberPsych animation, “The Brain,” toresearch the brain in more depth. To access the animation, do thefollowing:

    1. Open WileyPlus by clicking on the link on the student website.

    2. Click Read, Study, Practice

    3. Select Chapter Two.

    4. Go to CyberPsych.

    5. Click Animation:The Brain.

Afterwatching the animation, use it and your textbook to answer thefollowing questions:

  1. Why do psychologists study twins? Why do psychologists study children who have been adopted? What can be learned from these types of studies?

Psychologiststudy twins and adopted children to determine the contributions ofgenetics and environment on human development. From this studies, aperson can learn that nature and nurture attributes to certain mentalor behavioral aspects.

  1. What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones? How do they influence the brain and behavior?

Neurotransmittersinfluences brain functioning and hormones coordinate activities in aparticular cell (Adkins-Regan, 2005). Neurotransmitters influencescommunication between nerve cells whereas hormones control thebehaviors in the brain more than it influences it.

  1. What is neuroplasticity?

Neuroplasticityare neurons that takes control of the other nerve cells (neurons)when they are no longer obligatory. It is the capacity of the brainto rearrange itself in the event of experiences.

References

Adkins-Regan,E. (2005).&nbspHormonesand Animal Social Behavior.Princeton: Princeton

UniversityPress.

Carpenter,S., &amp Huffman, K. (2013).&nbspVisualizingPsychology.Hoboken, N.J: Wiley &amp Sons. Pp

31-63.

Moore,J. (2013). Tutorial: Cognitive Psychology as a Radical BehavioristViews

It.&nbspPsychologicalRecord,&nbsp63(3),667-679.&nbsp

Ratner,K. G., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. J., van Knippenberg, A., &ampAmodio, D. M. (2014).

Visualizingminimal ingroup and outgroup faces: Implications for impressions,attitudes, and behavior.&nbspJournalOf Personality And Social Psychology,(6), 897.

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