Transition from Neolithic to Early Civilization


Transitionfrom Neolithic to Early Civilization

Transitionfrom Neolithic to Early Civilization

Thetransition from Neolithic life to early civilization is one of themost interesting phenomena that historians have ever explored. It haswell been acknowledged that different parts of the globe experienced(and continue to undergo) this transition in varying paces. However,one area that has been immensely explored is the Middle East. Variedfactors may have caused the transition from Neolithic life tocivilization.

First,climatic changes may have triggered efforts at civilization. Thesechanges are linked to glacier retreat around 12000 B.C as the lastIce Age came to an end. The climatic changes triggered the migrationof a large number of big game animals to entirely new pasturelands inthe northern areas. These changes also resulted in a reduction in thesupply that human hunters in the Middle East could hunt. It is nowonder that the first animal domestication and agriculturalactivities arose in these regions.

Further,there is a high possibility that the civilization was partlytriggered by the increased human populations in a large number ofareas. Researchers and scholars alike have opined that the populationgrowth was possibly caused by the changing climatic conditions, aswell as plant and animal life, which forced the hunting bands torelocate to places in which the changes had been minimal. People suchas the Natufians in the Middle East discovered that their humanpopulations stood a higher chance off significant growth throughintensive harvesting of wild growing grains. The growth in populationresulted in an increase in the attention given to grain harvest,resulting in the systematic and conscious cultivation of crops and,therefore, the agrarian revolution. It has well been acknowledgedthat agriculture eventually caused civilization. Farming resulted insocial planning at a considerably greater scale with nomadic tribessettling down and eventually becoming part of co-operative forces.Eventually, it became possible to irrigate as there was need tosupport and feed the growing populations. It goes without saying thatnot all foods could grow in particular places. This means thatdifferent foods from varying parts of the world could be exchanged,thereby resulting in trade and, eventually, the growth of towns andcities.

Thereare varied aspects of the civilizations that are quite interesting.First, there was the introduction of writing, alphabets, as well asthe ancient numbers that formed the foundation of mathematics. Thisoccurred among the Sumerians and may have resulted in the growth anddevelopment of more cities and towns as individuals became moreliterate and, therefore, engaged more in business. This was also thecase for the astronomy that the Sumerian astronomers that lived alongTigris River practiced. It is worth noting that the astronomersopined that a year had 360 days, with the five missing days beingdeclared occasional holidays. The convenience of this number restedin the fact that it is divisible by numerous smaller number, in whichcase the Sumerians divided every day to 360 gesh, later modified to24 hours by Babylonians. Indeed, the minutes and seconds that areused in the current times have their origins traced way back into theLatin translations pertaining to Babylonian designations for the twosubdivision levels of the 24 hour duration. The small bits became theminutes (or minuta) while the secondary small bits were eventuallycalled seconds (or secunda minuta).