Trafficking in Persons


Traffickingin Persons

Traffickingin Persons

Jammal,R (2011). Human trafficking and Economic Globalization: SexTrafficking in Women: The Contemporary Slavery. New York: LebaneseAmerican University Press

Thispaper explores the relationship between globalization and humantrafficking. The author examines how human trafficking definitionshave developed over time, as well as the differences between migrantsmuggling and human trafficking. The author outlines the traffickingcycle pertaining to recruitment and transportation, exploitation, aswell as the different reasons for human trafficking.

Theauthor primarily argues that there exists a strong correlationbetween globalization and human trafficking. This assertion orargument is supported through a literature review on how the downfallof the Soviet Union affected varied aspects of the contemporary humansociety. Other events examined included the market demand and supplyeconomic chain and the advent of economic liberalization.

Apartfrom examining literature pertaining to this subject, the author alsouses the legal framework of Moldova and Russia to support hisargument as the two countries were previously Soviet Republics. Inthis regard, the author concludes that human trafficking is primarilydriven by forces of demand and supply. On the supply side (sources ofthe victims), there are high levels of poverty, ethnicdiscrimination, illiteracy and deficiency of opportunity, andunemployment. These are reinforced by the high rates of corruption,ineffective law enforcement, deficiency of legislations and porousborders.

Thearticle would come in handy in explaining the increase in humantrafficking in the contemporary human society. Indeed, it would allowfor the examination of the elements of contemporary human society orrather in the age of globalization that have created the foundationfor its proliferation, as well as the varied forms that it takes inthe modern world. On the same note, it would be useful in informingpolicymakers about the most appropriate measures to eliminate orcombat the vice.

&nbspFrank,R.W &amp Simons, B.A (2013). NationalLaw enforcement in a Globalised World: The Case of Human Trafficking.HarvardUniversity:AmericanPoliticalScienceAssociation.

Thisarticle acknowledges the development of human trafficking as acritical global issue in the last two decades. The authors state thathuman trafficking is becoming a crucial issue in the United Statesforeign policy as it touches on three ices that the country has beengrappling with including transnational criminal control, humansecurity and human rights. The authors, further, note that thefundamental or primary response made in an effort to combat this vicein the domestic United States law, regional European Law andInternational law has revolved around criminalizing it and strivingto prosecute the traffickers. However, the authors hypothesize thatcriminalization would not be effective in eliminating humantrafficking.

Theresults of the study lead to three conclusions pertaining to thelikely effects of criminalization. First, criminalization wouldlikely have little or no impact on human trafficking. Second, theresponse may lower the rates of human trafficking and, lastly,criminalization may result in the diversion of human trafficking froma particular jurisdiction to another as the culprits look for routesthat have the least resistance as this is the only way that they cansafeguard their profits derived from the exploitation of thepotential workers.

Thisarticle is primarily based on research on a distinctive time-seriesdataset documenting trafficking corridors. The authors examine datapertaining to states that have recorded high amounts of humantrafficking according to the Reports. Thisarticle would come in handy in the providing the most effectivestrategies for combating the vice. Of particular note is the factthat it lays emphasis on the need for coordinated strategies betweenstates, the deficiency of which would result in transnationalnegative externalities. In essence, it underlines the fact thattransnational collaboration and law enforcement would be the only wayfor effectively diffusing transnational crime.

Duong,K. A (2012). Human Trafficking in a Globalized World: Gender Aspectsof the Issue and Anti-Trafficking Politics. Journalof Research in Gender Studies&nbsp,Vol. 2, No. 1

Theauthor acknowledges the global nature of human trafficking, as wellas the magnitude of attention that the vice has attracted in variedcountries in the entire globe as a result of the devastating effectsthat it has on human beings. However, the main issue examined in thisarticle is whether human trafficking is, essentially, affecting orinvolving one gender more than the other. The author notes that ifthat is the case, it would be imperative that gender-basedanti-trafficking initiatives that allow for the elimination of gendercauses, as well as effects of human trafficking be incorporated.

Theauthor uses data and research on the situation of human traffickingin Vietnam, as well as anti-trafficking politics pertaining to thestate in an effort to explore the gender elements of humantrafficking in the era of globalization. He also uses this data toexamine whether the commitments and strategies made by varied statebodies and agencies are gender sensitive or gender specific, as wellas the state ideologies that form the basis of anti-globalizationpolitics in the world.

Duongargues that a large number of victims of human trafficking areprimarily women, taken from their countries either as sex slaves ordomestic workers. This means that the vice takes on a genderperspective. In essence, he suggests that the policies and strategiesput in place to fight the vice would need to particularly be focusedon this gender face of the vice if they are to be effective. Thistakes cognizant of the need for victim oriented policies in fightingthe war against trafficking. Such policies would particularly entailexamining the things that make women more vulnerable than their malecounterparts especially in the countries of origin including highlevels of unemployment, illiteracy and few employment opportunitiesand investments on women. This article would come in handy ininforming policy makers about the effectiveness of strategies aimedat combating the vice, especially on the supply side.


Duong,K. A (2012). Human Trafficking in a Globalized World: Gender Aspectsof the Issue and Anti-Trafficking Politics. Journalof Research in Gender Studies&nbsp,Vol. 2, No. 1

Frank,R.W &amp Simons, B.A (2013). National Law enforcement in aGlobalised World: The Case of Human Trafficking. AmericanPolitical Science Association

Jammal,R (2011). Human trafficking and Economic Globalization: SexTrafficking in Women: The Contemporary Slavery. Lebanese AmericanUniversity