ShakespeareT (1994) says that “The disability movement provides the collectivecontext for political identification it involves processes whichchallenge views of disabled people as incapable, powerless andpassive and it establishes disabled people as the experts ondisability and disabled people`s definitions as the most appropriateapproaches to disability, rather than the traditional domination ofprofessional.” Inthe current world, many organization have emerged to fight for theminority in the society, some of the group are developed by thedisabled to establish a platform to air out their grievances asdisabled hence identity politics.
Thisis after a long time of discrimination by the society, which looks atthem as defective and abnormal. In the other hand the disabled wantto be recognized as individual with a capacity of a normal man. Theorganization for disabled people’s international defines disabilityas the loss or limitation of opportunity to take part in the normallife of the community on an equal level with others due to physicaland social barriers. These differ from the biological definitionwhich view disability as a defect in or failure of a bodily systemthat is inherently abnormal and pathological. A keen observation ofthe two definition shows that the disabled considers not the physicalas barrier but the society which limit them from enjoying theavailable resources. They view themselves as normal people in thesociety against it will. This form our base of our discussion.
UrlaJ and Terry J note that “ the notion that the individual identifiedas socially, deviant are somatically different from ‘normal’people is a peculiarly recurring Idea that is deeply rooted inwestern scientific and popular thought but one that takes many formsin relation to particular historical and political contexts.” Thisshow that, the idea of normalization is subject to historical andpolitical background.
Insimple terms normalcy involve comparing people with each other inlight of standard, normality norms confront each person with thequestion who or how am I in comparison with others. For example ineducation sector, normalization principle argues that people withlearning difficulties are devalued by society and have stigmatizedidentities. A vicious circle of devalued identities reinforced bypoor quality services is created. Putting into practice thenormalization principle will transform the vicious circle into avirtuous circle of high quality services which will create highquality lifestyles and enable people with learning difficulties tomix with those who have socially valued identities.
Oneof well know person who have fought for equality of all peopledespite their disability is the Ecuador’s former vice- presidentLenin Moreno. He was a wealthy businessman and politician before1998,when he was shot in the back as gunmen stole his car from a parkinglot in Quito. He was paralyzed from the waist down. Moreno overcameintense pain and bouts of depression to become a motivationalspeaker. He`s written books about the healing power of laughter. Healso performs inspirational songs, according to Otis J(2013).
In2006, Moreno was elected vice president. At the time, it was rare tosee people in wheelchairs in public. In rural areas, people withsevere handicaps were treated as outcasts and sometimes confined tosheds and chicken coops. During his first year in the office, Morenoinvestigated the state of disabled people in Ecuador. He found thatthe government’s entire budget for disabled services wasapproximately 100,000 dollars. He took a fact-finding trip around thecountry and was shocked to find numerous disabled people living indeplorable conditions, such as in sheds and dark rooms, hidden fromsociety. In time Moreno increased the budget for disabled people morethan fiftyfold. He also stirred different program to see that allpeople we treated equally one of the program being, ‘Ecuadorwithout Barriers’ program in response to years of neglect bygovernments to the most sensitive and unprotected population of thecountry which is an evidence of normalization.
WildschmidtA(2006) explain that normalization society has become so influenced,especially over the two decades because it has been able to redefinethe concept of normalcy and to enforce it in sound practice viadiscourse, strategic procedures and to enforce it in social practicevia identity polices. Two of the thrust of normalization are
Thefirst is for consciousness-raising. Normalization will help usdislodge some of the prejudices and biases that both we and thegeneral society at large hold against people who are different. Thisis because they are directed towards those labeled retarded in oursociety, making us to have a very slow headway in transforming socialinstitution. To establish this Moreno started a program by the name“Let’s play without barriers” to promote the social integrationof people with disabilities through recreational and culturalactivities. These create a space for interaction between children ofdifferent regular and special educational establishments.
Secondlynormalization is a powerful organizing tool that has developed in thehuman services scenes for consumers and advocates to marshal theirstrength and have a clear vision of where they are going and wherehuman service ought to be going.In the same direction Moreno foresaw another project which touchesthe Social Circus, child, and youth orchestras. It is an effectivetool of social intervention, which demonstrate the circus arts withan innovative pedagogy that allows generating processes of socialchange and psychosocial support, and allows the recovery of valuessuch as solidarity, self-esteem and sense of belonging.
Disabilitycultural forms of self-provision, otherwise known as disability arts,develop a sense of shared cultural identity which is central to theseprocesses. Vasey S (1992) describe that “Disability arts alsoprovides a context in which disabled people can get together, enjoythemselves and think in some way about issues of common concern. Butit goes deeper than that, as disability culture really does offerpeople a key to the basic process of identifying as a disabledperson.” This is because culture and identity are closely linkedconcepts. Simply naming the idea I think has encouraged a lot ofdisabled people to happily call themselves so and to be more up frontand confident about themselves and that is also giving moreconfidence to the movement as a whole.
Hacking(1986) says that “numerouskinds of human beings and human acts come into being hand in handwith our invention of the categories labeling them.”Moreno currently serves as Chairman of the Committee on theElimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons withDisabilities. He identify himself with the disabled which is broughtout by a fact that now they share the same plight of disability.According to Week, J. (1990). “Identity is about belonging, about what you have incommon with some other people and what differentiates you fromothers. At its most basic, it gives you a sense of personal location,the stable core to your individuality” Disabilitystudies defines disability identity as a mediated and yet objectivesocial location. In addition to the medical view of disability, whichdefines disability as an individual impairment found in the patient,it understands disability identity as the product of a disablingenvironment. Disability demands not merely medical intervention butchanges in the applications of social justice, because the cause ofdisability exists both in the individual and society. It was with theuse of this identity movement that the former vice President was ableto actively change the view of the society on the disabled persons.
InJuly 2009, led the Solidarity Mission created as a center ofscientific and medical research powered to determine the causes ofdisabilities, and to outline and implement policies for real stateprotection and promotion rights , which covered the areas of health ,education and social welfare. Discrimination against disability notonly places disabled people in social locations that are lessaccessible to the goods and benefits enjoyed by nondisabled peoplediscrimination against disability creates more disabled people.Disabled people in the world are among the highest unemployed and thelowest in income, due to discrimination in the workplace. They oftencannot vote because polling places are inaccessible.
Disabilityidentity makes visible two key features defining the pain of minorityidentity. First, the pain of minority identity derives frominequitable social location. Second, this pain may provide afoundation for a political critique of societies based on inequality.Far from being a feeling that disables people as citizens, pain mayserve as a political index for social injustice, discrimination,inequality, and violence. It also contributes to the knowledge baseof society and creates motivations for building new coalitions thatpursue different kinds of political action of which Moreno was ableto achieve.
Accordingto Bynoe and other (1991) “The move towards self-organization hasprompted increasing numbers of disabled people to adopt a sharedpolitical identity which in turn has helped to build a new mood ofconfidence. Disabled people no longer ask for change, but demand it.They are prepared to use a whole range of tactics in pursuit of theirdemands, including direct action and civil disobedience”
Oneof the barriers for the disabledleading to lack of identity is that they are isolated and separatedfrom one another, and from sources of collective support andstrength. For Moreno to have the massive achievement that he had, adoor to door outreach to look out the disabled
Rapleyand Baldwin (1995) argue that “a lack of conceptual clarity amongstpolicy makers was viewed as one possible obstacle to successfulnormalization implement.”The experience of disability as a negativeidentity arises out of a process of socialization, or in the contextof social relations, in which impairment is the sole focus ofanalysis. Grief and loss are turned inwards, and suffering focuses onthe self. In the absence of other socially sanctioned identities, theprofessional cripple role enables successful interaction withprofessionals, offering the benefits of sympathy and concern on thepart of others. It could be conceived in terms of a tendency to`blame the victim`, to convert public issues in personal woes.
Bynoe,I. Barnes, C. And Oliver, M. (1991) EqualRights For Disabled People,London: Ippr
HackingI (1986) ReconstructingIndividualism, Stanford:Stanford University Pres
Morris,J. (1991) PrideAgainst Prejudice, London:Women`s Press OtisJ (2013) Ecuador`sParaplegic Vice President Lenin Moreno a Major Force for DisabilityRights.Public Radio International
Rapley,M., & Baldwin, S. (1995). Normalisation—metatheoryor metaphysics? A conceptual critique.Australia & New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities
ShakespeareT (1994)Centre for disabilities studies.The disability Press. Leeds
UrlaJ And Terry J (1995) Deviant BodiesCulture Prospective On Difference In Science And Popular Culture:Indiana University Press. Bloomington.
SianV. 1992 .Normalism And Disability.disability press
Weeks,J. (1990) TheValue Of Difference:Quabet Books. London.
WildschmidtA (2006) Normalcy,bio-politics and disability.Society for disability studies press. Colegne