AUSTRALIAN CITIES AND URBAN AREAS 10
Section1: Topic 7
Usageof land in urban cities is related to various externalities.Indicators that are naturally strategic and seem to recur includetransit ridership, standard distance of commuting to the place ofwork, vehicle-mile travelled or VMT. These are all spatial relationsthat are always erratic. An externality’s spatial field relate tothe economic, environmental and social costs that are experiencedwithin a particular urban city. Economic costs include the costsencountered to sustain an urban setting in accordance to the uses ofits land. Densities that are lower together with isolated uses ofland tend to escalate the economic costs through average commutingdistances, energy usage, and provision of public utility. The momentthe use of land shifts from rural to urban, it is less oftenavailable for a different usage (O’Dwyer, 1997). On the other hand,social costs are brought about by the land pattern, interaction anduse density. Other environmental externalities such as smog, odorsand noise play a part in disrupting life’s quality. Turning toenvironmental costs, it is most obvious that the cost is associatedwith the amount of land occupied at a natural environments expense.Also, land usage plays a part in downgrading the environment mostparticular for industrial operations (water, air pollution, hazardouswaste materials among others.
Theacronym ‘NIMBY’ literally refers to ‘Not In My Backyard’. Thephrase originated in the US and used to illustrate the opinions ofthe people who were opposed to any development projects in theirsurroundings whilst they don’t oppose such developments if they areinstilled in other places. Even though it’s clear in situationsagainst building houses in rural areas, particularly on the urbanperiphery. The NIMBY syndrome has been intended to oppose variouslocally unwanted amenities, for example, incinerators masts formobile phones, and factories in urban & suburban environs. Aslong as the life in Australian cities is concerned, positive elementof NIMBY syndrome has contributed hugely to the best political systemin those cities that countered with the negative nimby syndrome wherefear, or ignorance, or indifference, made a lot of people less activeand neutralized. This syndrome is part of racial isolation also. Withtime people have been changing their perception of racial isolationand now can see interracial intermarriage in Australian cities andurban centers. The days of racial segregation against the blackperson are long gone and you can see more racial intermarriage.
Section2 Topic 8
Regardingthe health differences concerning people living in urban areas andrural areas, on vital undertaking regarding health, rural residentsor people living in less urbanized residencies, rank lower than thoseresiding in urbanized areas. In Australian cities, various factorscontribute to the well being of the people residing in those areas.Factors such as health risk, access to health care, socioeconomic anddemographic characteristics, highly contributing to the generalhealth of city residents (O’Dwyer, 1997). Variations in healthconditions commonly do not demonstrate a monotonic model betweenurban & rural locales, and the huge difference often takes placebetween rural & suburban locales. To suitably characterize healthdifferences athwart rural-urban range, measures, including suburbancategory and urbanization will be required. A continuous research onthe health situation in Australian cities and urban places will laythe foundation toward eradicating the disadvantage, health wise, ofless urbanized residents.
Allurban areas share a common characteristic of inequality. In otherwords, they pose immense disparities between rich and poor, poverty &wealth. In addition, huge differences are observed in sectors likepeople’s health, accessibility to jobs, education & housingfacilities. People who live in inner city residences face anunderprivileged quality of life. The major reason being that innercity is naturally an area with diminishing industry & olderhousing. Inner city dwellers encounter social problems such as lackof employment & episodes of enduring illnesses. The government &other private planners usually join hands in order to assistredevelop and restructure inner city. Though such redevelopments willbetter up the areas’ physical appearance & better up housingquality, they can however, bring about even huge inequalities sincethe local dwellers may be unable to afford living there after suchredevelopments (O’Dwyer, 1997).
Section3 Topic 9
Australia’sretail industry in big cities and urban areas has undergone a hugechange over the past 20 years. To begin with, the general retailindustry has been totally disrupted and transformed by the new facesof technology. Consumers have turned to the internet for onlinestores forcing the retailers to turn to the internet in order toreach more consumers. It has become and still continues to be acomplex operation for retailers to transverse these new technologies,with various major trends influencing the normalcy in which retailersundertake their operations as far as this new surroundings isconcerned. The usage of the internet has made it possible for almostany firm to turn into a retailer (Forster, 2004). It is now possiblefor wholesalers, manufacturers, buyers & suppliers to sell theirmerchandise directly to the consumer than it was several years back.Mobile technology has provided a suitable and efficient opportunityto supply customized shopping ventures right in the comfort of theirhomes, providing a bridge between retailers & consumers throughevery stage of the shopping procedure driving a much deeperengagement.
Thefact that almost 3 out of4 Australians own a Smartphone has ledretailers to reflect on this fact, since consumers bear the power intheir hands and they no longer have to wait for consumers to come intheir retail businesses. Since the 1990s great innovations have takenplace in the Australia’s retail industry such as the technology ofBluetooth Low Energy (BLE), this has considerably reduced the strifein making payments through providing consumers with the ability ofmaking a purchase through their mobile devices. Products such asPayPal Beacon have brought businesses in Australian cities muchcloser to customers, eliminating the worry from customers since theydo not have to open applications, require phone signals or even turnon GPS. The future of retail businesses hugely relies on the internetconnectivity since the connected will be able to personalize theirservices and stay up to the wants of their customers (Forster, 2004).
Australia’sgrowth of the tourism industry can directly be associated with thehosting of major events. The hallmarks & spectacles associatedwith mega events has acted as the main tool that has promotedreimaging & redevelopment of urban centers in Australia. DarlingHarbor redevelopment in Sydney provides a very good example. Hostingof huge events has led to fast, effective & quick planning inwhich the public is involved consequently leading to theestablishment of new leisure spaces of middle-class standard. Majorevents have continuously aided in the development & growth ofAustralia’s urban tourism, for instance, the victorious bidding forthe 2000 Summer Olympic Games by Sidney. Through hosting majorevents, tourism is used as a means of regenerating urban regionsthrough establishment of leisure tourism joints of middle classstandard.
Section4: Topic 10
Unemploymentis hugely considered as among the main major sign of a country’swell being. Nevertheless, the causes for and the effects of the rateof unemployment may vary from city to city. The reason behind thisbeing cities themselves may have variations in their labor market &their socio-demographic structure. For instance, some regions dependon a restricted number of factories and industries to sustainpopulation size, income levels, and services infrastructure.Therefore, if such a region faces reductions in jobs in one of thosefactories or industries, it may face high numbers of unemploymentsince those who have lost jobs are incapable of securing other jobs.On the other hand, such ha region may face a low number ofunemployment, as well as decline in population, since job seekerswill have to find jobs elsewhere. To add to that, high rates ofunemployment may be accelerated by people visiting areas, basicallyfor leisure, rather than employment purposes. In such a situation,it’s most probable from the same region to concurrently face hugegrowth in employment (Forster, 2004).
Overthe past 20years the Australia’s nature of work has changed fromcity to city. The structure and nature of work has changed indifferent forms raging from the factories or industries in which theyare employed, employment security, career opportunities, to theminimum amount of the wages (Forster, 2004). The increase in thegrowth in services demand & the growth in income & wage hasbeen evident for the past 20 years. For the past two to threedecades, it’s only 4 years that there has been unemployment rateaveraging below the current 5 and a quarter percent. Unemployment islow compared to the nineties when it was slightly above the 10percent mark. Beyond this low and stable rate of unemployment, therethrives a huge movement as far as the individual worker is concerned.If the data from the ABS, Australian Bureau of Statistics isconsidered, observations in 2012 show that 2.3 million workers wereemployed whilst 1.2 million workers changed job. Though most peoplenaturally secure somehow long terms are a particular job, aconsiderable number of individuals change jobs on a yearly basis. Thechange in the structure of the economy has given rise to thedifferent movement of people from one city to the other. This is as aresult of voluntary change of job or other factors best known by theindividual in question. The reasons for workers to change jobs areinclusive of new opportunities, or involuntary reasons such as theprevious enterprises or jobs were shut down due employers running outof business (Forster, 2004).
Section5: Topic 11
Experimentalevidence on the decision to work shows that the elasticity of laborforce contribution rates with respect to wages for the majority ofworkers (that is, males and female family heads) is most likely notgreater than 0.1. Hence, only 1 out of the 100 workers would notprolong their services work for the firm in response to its transfer.Including a laissez-faire amount for out-of-pocket travel expenses inthe scenario might cause enough of a change in the net income thattwo workers would decide not to make the housing commute.
Thus,if distances to jobs in the suburbs are important in explaining thefailure of minorities to shift their labor supply to the suburbs, itmust be that information on available jobs declines with distance(Ihlanfeldt, 2004). This is an appealing supposition, since we knowthat less-educated workers tend to rely on informal methods of jobsearch, such as consulting with friends and relatives, rather thanformal methods, such as contacting a public or private employmentagency Informal methods are unlikely to inform inner-city blacks ofsuburban job openings.
Nevertheless,even without any hard evidence on the role of the job information asa cause of black under-representation in suburban jobs, policies thatwould enhance inner-city
Minorities’knowledge of suburban job openings can be recommended simply becausethey may yield a handsome payback at relatively low cost. A secondpossible reason why inner-city people have not adjusted to thedecentralization of jobs by commuting to the suburbs is that they mayencounter greater labor market prejudice in the suburbs than withinthe central city, either because of greater consumer discriminationor because prejudiced employers intentionally choose uptown locationsto get away from minority workers. If they do come across greaterunfairness outside the central city, then forthright enforcement ofprejudice laws in the suburbs becomes an unsuitable job accessdevelopment policy.
Section6: Topic 12
TheAustralian city in question is the City of Sydney. It has 395,337people that work in the City, 57,814 or 14.6% live in the residentialarea adjacent to the city. The city’s residents commute from theirresidential areas to places of work. Many of them live locally andcommute to the Sydney central business District due to the manyemployment centers in the city. The city of the central businessdistrict attracts the external workforce because local residentspossess different sets of skills and aspirations than other localjobs.
Thedevelopment of suitable policies that would fall into this classdepends on the answer to the following essential question: Why hasn’tthe excess of labor within inner-city neighborhoods been eradicate byminorities, appealing in more general job searches and commuting allthrough the local labor market? As argued above, there are threepotential hurdles that may prevent inner-city blacks from travellingto suburban jobs. First, the expansiveness to jobs in the suburbs maymake it too expensive to commute to these jobs or may mean thatminorities have deprived information on uptown job opportunities.Second, the consumer and/or employer unfairness may cause suburbanemployers to discriminate against minorities in the employmentprocess.
Central-cityjobs, fewer suburban jobs are within walking distance of a publictransit stop, and many inner-city minorities do not own automobiles.A suburban job will generally involve more commuting time for aninner-city occupant than will an inner city job. However, it ishighly improbable that this extra time explains theunder-representation of minority workers in suburban jobs. Considerthe following situation: a firm employing 100 inner-city employeeshifts from the city to the environs and there are no substitute jobsfor these workers within the inner city. As a result the workers mustcommute an additional 45 minutes each way to continue to work for thefirm. Since the workers would be traveling against traffic, theassumption of 45 minutes of extra travel time may be too high to berealistic. Nevertheless, if workers value their travel time at halfthe wage rate, as transportation-mode choice studies suggest, thereduction in the individual worker’s net daily wage is less than 10percent.
Chapter3 in C. Forster (2004) Australian cities, Melbourne, OUP (3rdedition).Stimson, R, Baum, S. and O’Connor, K. (2003) `The Socialand Economic Performance of Australia’s Large Regional Cities andTowns: Implications for Rural and Regional Policy` GeographicalStudies, 41: 2, 131–147
Ihlanfeldt,K. (2004). The spatial mismatch between jobs and residentiallocations within urban areas. Cityscape,1(1),219-244.
O’Dwyer,B. (1997) Pathways to homelessness: a comparison of gender andschizophrenia in Inner-Sydney”, AustralianGeographical Studies35,294-307.