Research paper



Introduction Illness is a common phenomenon in human life nevertheless, diseasesbring burden to both the individual and the economy at large. Theeconomic burden that is brought through infections is by means ofloss of sufficient and effective labor force thus bringing down theper capita income. It is a more worrisome phenomenon is the diseaseburden is further complicated through acquisition of secondaryinfections in hospitals and treatment centers. The microorganismsthat transmit the nosocomial infections are usually resistant tocontemporary treatment and may require an increased dosage ofantibiotics and time to treat (Nakamura&amp Tompkins, 2012). Escherichia coli is one of the major nosocomial infections thatincreases disease burden in the health sector and the global economy.The development of these kinds of infections is favored by thehospital environment and is acquired by the patients during hospitalvisits or by the hospital staff. The main predisposing factor toacquisition of nosocomial infection among the patients is the alreadycompromised immunity that makes it easy for disease attack. However,poor hygiene maintenance as well as the lack of consideration toinfection prevention and control significantly contribute to theacquisition of nosocomial infections (Ekiriet al., 2009). The center for disease control approximates that there areapproximately 1.7 million types of hospital-acquired infections,including all types of microorganisms from bacteria to viruses. Theseinfections are again estimated to contribute to the loss ofapproximately 100000 lives annually. Of the hospital acquiredinfections, the gram-negative bacterial form the major bulk of thegroup. The treatment and elimination of this class of bacteria aretroublesome as they are resistant to the first class and majority ofthe second-class antibiotics. Elimination of the causative agents fornosocomial infections become difficult at the same time due to theircapability of surviving for a long in hostile environments, includingin situations of desiccation (Ogdenet al., 2002).E.Coli infection at good health hospital. Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium that resides in thedigestive system. In the normal cases, the bacteria do not causeinfections. Nevertheless, some strains of the bacteria such as strainO157:H7 are known to cause severe infections such as anemia andkidney failure that could easily lead to death. The non-infectiousstrains of the bacteria can be beneficial to the host through theproduction of vitamin K2. The major route through which theinfectious strains of the bacteria are transmitted to the host isthrough fecal-oral transmission. The organism can survive out of thehost environment for a prolonged duration especially when harbored ina moist environment. Fecal contamination of the environment and itssurrounding is thus a poor hygienic practice that results to aninfection (Raskoet al., 2008). According to the records of the good health hospital and those ofthe center for disease control, infection by E. coli has equalprevalence based on race and gender. Nevertheless, living inunhygienic environments increases the prevalence of attack as itincreases incidences for fecal-oral transmission. Equally, vegetableproducts that are not properly washed those that are grown inproximity to the sewerage areas especially can transmit theinfection. Contaminated meat is another of the most important avenuesthat could result to transmission of the infection this majorlyhappens when the hygienic condition of the meat is poor in additionto being inappropriately cooked. Drawing inference from thefigures of attack by E. coli in good health hospital, the four casesof the infection recorder were inclusive of males and females in aratio of 1: 1. Equally these people were from a cross-sectional agegroups beginning from teenagers to adults. In the case of anidentified cases of infection by E. coli in an hospital, it is anopen knowledge that there are likely more incidences of subsequentattacks if the causes are not properly identified and propermitigation action taken within an appropriate time frame. In thedetermination of the cause of E. coli as a nosocomial infection, themanagement and public health department of the hospital must seeksome answerers from the patients. The answers are meant to identifyif the infection was acquired before admission or if it was acquiredafter admission (Raskoet al., 2008).Commonnosocomial infections at the health care facility. As a requirement function of the district officer of health, I cameto identify that the most common nosocomial infections in thefacility oral transmission associated nosocomial infections, centralline-associated bloodstream infections, surgical site infection, andcatheter-associated infections and clostridium difficult infections.With the identification of these types of infections it is thusacknowledged that eliminate of bacteria and microorganisms from ahospital set up may not be completely achieved but measures could betaken to contain the infections. Non-hospital items that lead toinfection should be top in the strategy for elimination (Raskoet al., 2008).Vegetables and edible supplies to the hospital should thus be keenlyscrutinized to ensure that the hospital management is aware of theproduction system of the consumable. Scrutinization of these itemsensures that the chances of feeding the patients on contaminatedproducts are minimized. Additionally, the kitchen would be a toppriority are for the fact-finding ensuring that the foods that areprepared in the kitchen meets the prescribed standards of health,nutrition and hygiene. These standards ensure that the food addsappropriate nutritive value that is essential for improvement ofimmunity as well as free from contaminations that are likely causesof disease transmission (Perlroth,Choi, &amp Spellberg, 2007).

Contingencyplan for hospital infections.

1.Preparation for outbreak of E. Coli. With recorded increment in the outbreak of nosocomial infections,the facility will take reference from the world health organization’sguidelines on the prevention of the infection. The hospital outreachdepartment would endeavor to prevent an outbreak of the infections inthe community to limit the chances of hospitalization of the infectedpatients. Through the use of community diagnosis, community carecases will be identified early and treatment of the outbreak coupledwith isolation will be adequately managed to prevent furtheroutbreak.2.Preparation of adequate human resource. A training and mobilization plan is to be structured in a mannerthat the hospital staff and the community health practitioners aremade aware of the symptoms as well as the current management protocolto ensure that the nosocomial infections are contained early enough.There would also be a periodic training of staff in areas ofintensive infection control to enhance in-depth knowledge of how todeal with an outbreak of the infections. All the staff training wouldbe documented to identify any presence of a knowledge gap between thefactual infection in the hospital and the intended interventions tocombat the infections (Perlroth,Choi, &amp Spellberg, 2007). A team of infection control nurses would be augmented through thetraining and designing of the staff. A list of the staff trained forthe intervention would be maintained to ensure that all the membersof staff benefits from an appropriate training. Moreover, a pool ofnurses and doctors would be trained for emergency response inhandling of new cases of infection with priority given to isolationand all the measures that are geared towards prevention of a furtheroutbreak.3.Supply of adequate drugs, consumables and equipment. The facility will order portable high-efficiency drugs andconsumables. Air filters would be installed in areas where thesesupplies are stored as a means of preventing their contamination. Theavailability of appropriate drugs and consumables as a contingencymeasure would ensure that the disease is contained in its earlystages to prevent infection of other non-infected individuals. Afour-month stock of personal protective equipment would be availed toensure that the health care workers are equally protected in case ofan infection outbreak.4.Clinical management. A management protocol would be designed for each clinical area toensure that the outbreak of nosocomial infections in clinical set-upsis adequately identified and managed in its initial period. Earlydiagnosis, isolation and treatment of a nosocomial infection is animportant undertaking that aids in preventing the spread of theinfections. These measures would be carried out in liaison with therelevant ministries, center for disease control as well as WHO,through determination of an appropriate protocol of management.


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