Research Designs and Methods


Institutional affiliations

Incremental Cash Flow

Incremental cash flow is the totalafter-tax cash flow, which schemes make over its life. It is alsoreferred to as operating cash flow and itequals the surplus of cash inflows to cash outflows on account ofoperating expenses and taxes (Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006).

Capita budgeting choices need to project cash flows into the futureand then by means of the time value of money methods to discoverwhether the venture is cost-effective or not. The formula isIncremental cash flow=Cash Inflows-Cash Outflows-Taxes, wherebyTaxes= (Inflows- Outflows-Depreciation Expense) x Tax Rate (Fraenke &ampWallen, 2006).

When calculating additional cash flows from a newfangled plan, anumber of problems arise, such as the sunken costs, opportunitycosts, and externalities.

Sunk Costs

These are the original expenditures essential to examine a projectthat cannot improve even if the venture is conventional.

Opportunity Cost

This is the price of not going ahead with the venture or the cashoutflows that will not flow in as a result of using an asset for adifferent substitute.


In the reflection of incremental cash flows of afresh investment. There may be impacts on the present functions ofthe business to reflect on, well-known as &quotexternalities&quot(Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006).Evaluation is done to identify whetherthe new merchandise may in reality take away or adds to stocksof the current item for consumption.


Year % expensescash flows

114.29 6000- 2000 ((1+14.29%)-1)14,250.07

2 24.49 6000-2000 ((1+24.29%)-1)24,709.49

3 17.49 6000-2000 ((1+17.49%)-1)34,766.82

4 12.49 6000-2000 ((1+ 12.49%)-1) 4,750.97

5 8.936000-2000 ((1+8.93%)-1)1 4,163.96

68.936000-2000 ((1+8.93%)-1)1 4,163.96

Total cash flows 26,805.27

Depreciation = 20003× 30% =600

Taxes = (26,805.27- 2000- 600) × 30%= 7,261.581

Incremental cash flow= 26,805.27 – 2000 – 7,261.581= 17,543.689

Part B: JIT Inventory management system

Just-in-Time (JIT) inventory management is theprocedure of ordering and getting stock for production and consumersales only as required and not prior to (Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006).It means that the corporation does not hold security reserve andoperates with small stock levels. The approach helps industriesreduce their stock carrying costs.

JIT control is a stock management policy meant to monitor theinventory course of action in such a manner lower the costs linkedwith inventory management and maintenance. To agreat extent, a just-in-time inventory procedure depends on thewell-organized monitoring of the usage of supplies in the manufactureof products. It also depends on the order of substitution of goodsthat arrive curtly before they get required (Fraenke &amp Wallen,2006). Hence, it is a straightforward tactic helps to avoidincurring the costs related with transporting large inventories ofunprocessed resources at any given point in time.

An additional appliance of a just-in-time inventory focuses not onunrefined materials but refined products. Again, the thought is toexpand a concrete understanding of what is required to manufactureproducts and timetable them for consignment to consumers within theshortest timepossible. Shipping processed products soon afterproducing them leads to minimizing storage space costs and any taxesthat may be appropriate. This dual use of a JIT stock strategy canconsiderably cut the operational cost of a company in regards to thequantity of supply that must be stored atany one moment. It also cuts the amount of taxes that have to bepaid on bigger stocks (Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006).

Costs that minimized by JIT control (highand low ordering costs)

High-holding costs and low-ordering costs are the features thatpropel the JIT replica. For a health check practice, the capacity toreduce order costs can generate a feasibleanswer to financial challenges (Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006). By usingthe JIT model, health practices can speed stock turnover and makebest use of the business’ liquid reserves: cash. Accuratelyimplemented, the JIT system can assist to develop a practice’s netearnings.

Wal-Mart is an illustration of an industry that fruitfully has madethe proper use of the JIT model. Instead of having huge holdingexpenses, Wal-Mart lessens its product-ordering costs with eachmerchant. By reducing its ordering expenditures, Wal-Mart attainsbigger cash flow and improved inventory management.

Part C: Steps in making choices of project initiation

Using the discounted payback period is not appropriate to determinethe choice of selecting a project. It isbecause the discounted payback period requires a series of cash flowsthat are computed each year to determine the value of the project(Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006). Alternatively, the following steps leadto making the final decision on whether theproject is viable or not viable

First, investigatethe possible sources of failures by means of an input-output diagramand bring the data into the Failure ModeEffect analysis tool (FMEA). Secondly, evaluate the list to makecertain all probable failures are recognized.Moreover, execute the risk prioritization computation for bothindividual latent failure modes by using the FMEA tool. Document theRisk Precedence, Number figures as an estimation of severity,incidence, and recognition scores asfollows:&nbspRisk Precedence Number = Severity x incidencex recognition (Fraenke &amp Wallen, 2006).

Fourthly, using project data and anyexisting assessment tools, work out the mean cost of resolving (ACR)for every possible source of failure as shown: ACRi = EHRi xACHi. Where: ACRi = Average cost to resolveincident, EHRi = Effort hours to resolve incident, ACHi = Averagecost per hour for incident, i = 1 to n (n being the total number offailures). Stage five is to compute the average effort outlay.It is vital for determining an indiscriminate occurrence by use of aweighted average period to determine thefailure weighted by the risk precedence of every failure (Fraenke &ampWallen, 2006). Finally, estimate the Cost of Poor Quality for theventure by multiplying the random eventvalue and the latent drop in occurrences(per annum).


Fraenke, J.R., &amp Wallen, N.E. (2006). Capital Budgeting.(5th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.