RelateDurheim’s explanation of religion to the Islamic religion.
Islamicreligion has two meaning peace and submission to God. For one topractise this religion, he or she must purposely and dutifully offeroneself to serve Allah. It require fully conscious and denial toserve the Almighty God. Therefore, to fit in this religion, one mustobey the rules and follow the teaching in the Qur’an, as well asfollow the footsteps of Prophet Muhammad. Emile Durkheim is asociological theorist, who has spent much of his life studyingreligions. According to Durkheim research, people separate religiousobjects, symbols, and rituals that are sacred, from the dailyobjects, symbols, and rituals that are not sacred that are knownprofane (Sameel,n.p).Sacred objects have divine properties that are different from profaneobjects. Durkheim differentiates religion in terms of sacred andprofane object. Most people believe that the sacred objects havesense of reverence and awe, and possess special power. This issimilar to Islamic religion that believes their sacred objects suchas Quran are special and should be handles with lots of care. Theyalso believe that these objects have a special power. Some of thesacred objects in Islamic religion are Quran, mosque, jihad, amongothers.
Durkheimalso argues that religion comprises of regular rituals andceremonies, which Christians use to develop and strengthen solidarityamong them (Sameeln.p).The importance of rituals is to connect the members of religiousgroup together, and gives them sense of belonging. In addition, therituals and the ceremonies give individuals a chance to escape fromordinary aspects into higher empire of experiences. Further, thesesacred rituals and ceremonies are significant for marking specialoccasions such as time of crisis, births, marriage, and deaths.Similarly, Islamic religion has special ceremonies and rituals. Forinstance, Muslims have Idul Fitre festive that marks the end offasting in Ramadan month. The season is celebrated with feasts,public prayers, and exchange of gifts. Another ceremony is Idul Adhathat marks the end of annual pilgrimage to Mecca and Hajji. Duringthese ceremonies, people sacrifice a goat and a lamb to signifyobedience to God (Sameeln.p).
Further,Durkheim’s came up with Durkheim’s theory of religion to examinesociological phenomena. He reasons that people view religion as acontributing factor to health and continuation of the religion.Holding religious function together binds the religion memberstogether, as well as affirms their common beliefs and values.However, as society modernises, its leads to decrease in religioninfluence (Youtuben.p).Durkheim believes that people are replacing religious thinking withscientific thinking. As a result, people start giving minimalattention to religious ceremonies and rituals. Nowadays, religionsare also promoting civil religion by incorporating civilcelebrations, patriotism, and parades. Durkheim believes that fortraditional religion to continue, it should preserve social cohesion.Islam religion recognises other traditional religion. It recognisesearlier prophets such as Adam, Abraham, Solomon, David, and Jesus.Similar to Durkheim’s theory, Islamic religion believes itcontributes to good health. It also encourages continuation of thereligion by engaging young children in their ceremony and rituals. Inaddition, the modern society is also interfering with the Islamicreligion. For instance, most Muslim are abandoning their dress codeand adopting the western dressing code.
Howdoes Islam provide social cohesion, meaning and social control?
Socialcohesion is the willingness of individuals in the society tocooperate with one another to survive and prosper. Social cohesionoffers diverse of social outcome such as economic, social, and healthprosperity. In other words, social cohesion works toward ensuringwell-being of members of a certain community, fight exclusion andmarginalisation, promotes trust, create upward mobility, and create asense of belonging. On the other hand, social control is a societaland political process that regulates individual or group behaviour inorder to gain compliance and conformity. There are two forms ofsocial control: formal and informal social control. Formal socialcontrols are the external sanctions enforced by the government tominimise chaos in the society. Durkheim also refers this type ofsocial control as regulation. Informal social controls are theinternal sanctions enforced by individuals to develop their actualbehaviours. Examples of informal social controls are ridicule, shame,disapproval, criticism, exclusion, and social discrimination.
Islamicreligion provides social cohesion and social control through variousmeans. The Muslim society is made different individuals fromdifferent ethnicity and race (BBCNews n.p).To promote social cohesion in Islamic religion, Muslims share fourcommon things. Firstly, they have a common sense of belonging and acommon vision. According to Prophet Muhammad, Quran belong to allMuslim races and no race is better than the other is. According toProphet Muhammad, all human kind descended from Adam and Eve hence,no one is better than the other is. He urges that Arabs as not betterthan non-Arabs, only their deed differs. Some of the activities thatgive Muslims sense of belonging is their ways of praying together toone God using Arabic language. In addition, Muslims gather to prayand fast during the month of Ramadan. During this season, all Muslimsmake pilgrimage to Makkah, also creating a sense of belonging.
Secondly,they appreciate and value their different cultures (BBCNews, n.p).In order for different people from different religion to live withoutconflicts, Muslims had to search for ways to live in harmony. Theyappreciate and respect the differences that arise because ofdifferent beliefs. Additionally, they learn to live with one another,listen to each other, and work together in unity. They also learn toshare common values such as tolerance, charity, respect, andnon-violence.
Thirdly,they promote equal opportunities among all members of the community.Nowadays, Muslims are promoting Community Cohesion by holdingceremonies and festivals together (Islam.orgn.p).During these occasions, they learn about themselves, as well promotecommon opportunities amongst themselves. They also learn about otherregions practises and learn to appreciate them. A good example of aMuslim individual who promoted social harmony is Malcolm. He wasactively involved in campaigning for social cohesion amongAfrican-American Muslim. He was imprisoned after involving himselfwith drugs and other crimes. In prison, he met with other Muslimsfrom various ethnic backgrounds. It is during this time that herealised Islamic is not only for black people, but all the people.Eventually, Malcolm declared what he was doing was wrong and racist,and transformed to support all Muslim.
Lastly,they ensure positive and strong relationship among people ofdifferent races. They create their own comfort zone to fulfil theirneeds. They create a clear sense of community to make everyone feelsecure and create freedom to enjoy traditional rituals and customs.Islam.org(n,p) states that Muslim society is a multicultural society thatcomprises of people from different cultures. Muslims use mosques andIslamic centres, community centres, and other social enterprises tocreate strong relationship amongst them. They also help to build linkwith other communities, and appreciate their beliefs.
BBCNews.BBC. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.<http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/
Islam.org."Introduction to Islam for Non-Muslims." Introductionto Islam for Non-Muslims.Web. 4 Nov. 2014. <http://www.introductiontoislam.org/index2.shtml>.
Sameel,Muhammad. "Anthropology of Islam." Anthropologyof Islam.3 May 2011. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.<http://abdalhaqq.wordpress.com/tag/emile-durkheim/>.
Youtube."How to Pray in Islam – Step by Step Guide – 1/7 Intro &Wudu." YouTube.YouTube. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNnfHc4ikLQ>.