Basedon research evidence, the diagnostic and statistical manual wasrevised in the year 2013. Several key changes were made in thediagnosis of autism and Asperger‘s disorder and other relatedconditions. The DSM 4 was changed to DSM 5. Some of the main changesinclude replacement of the “autism disorders, Asperger’s disorderand pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified” withthe general term “autism spectrum disorder”. The distinctions aretherefore based on severity of the disorder rather than beingconsidered a separate disorder. The revision has also introduced newdiagnostic criteria especially in relation to repetitive behaviorsand fixation. Other changes include the combination of severaldomains to form the “social and communication deficits” domain.


Themain change in the axial system is the change from the multi axialsystem into a single axial system. These changes are aim at ensuringthat the new American standards are similar to the global approachesto diagnosis of mental illnesses. In the DSM-5 axes one, two andthree are combined into a single axis.


Thereare three main types of mood disorders. They include depressiondisorders, bipolar disorders and drugs induced disorders. A majordepression disorder which results into major depressive episodes is amajor mood disorder. Bipolar disorders are unstable conditionsassociated with abnormal moods cycles. Mood disorders can also besubstance induced, for example, alcohol or benzodiazepine induceddisorders.


SIGICAPSdescribes the main symptoms of depressive disorder as described inthe DSM-4. These symptoms include “sleep disturbances, interest orpleasure reduction, guilt feelings, energy changes, concentration,appetite, psychomotor disturbances and suicidal thoughts”.According to the guideline, a positive diagnosis of a depressivedisorder requires five of these symptoms.


Diagnosticinterview in mental health management is a question and answermeeting between a patient suspected to have a mental illness and thepsychiatrist or any other trained medical practitioner.


Acourse treatment in mental health is a treatment regiment that apatient is supposed to undergo within a specific period of time.


Thecross culture classification system in the DSM 5 is the culturalvariability in mental disorders. Both DSM 4 and DSM 5 deal with thecultural differences in relation to mental illnesses diagnosis andmanagement.


Althoughthey have similar symptoms, acute stress disorder is different frompost traumatic disorder. Post traumatic stress disorder describes themental conditions that develop after experiencing a traumatic event.On the other hand, describes the anxiety disorder immediately afterexperiencing a traumatizing event.


Riskfactors associated with PTSD includes long exposure to traumaticevent, history of childhood abuse, existence of other mentalillnesses, lack of social support and family history of relatedmental diseases.


Majorityof soldiers suffering from PTSD are aggressive and outbursts easily.However, it is unusual that Drazen is calmer that he was before thetraumatizing events during the war.


PTSDwas referred to as “shell shock” in the World War I.


Cortisolis the main hormone released during such traumatizing events.


Themost appropriate treatment for Mary is training on how to deal withher fears. Mary is developing a mental illness because of the fear offailing her examination. Her previous experience is what makes herfear the exams. Mary should be counseled on all the potentialoutcomes of the examinations. The counselor should help Mary thinkpositively about the exams and consider the worse case scenario. Forexample, Mary needs to know the effects of missing classes, noteating or even isolating herself. This will assist Mary understandthat failing an exam is not extraordinary.


Mary,C T. &amp Lois, A. (2014). Psychiatricmental health nursing: concepts of care in evidence-based practice,Philadelphia,Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis Company