Q.1.:Biological basis

Itis important for a clinical psychologist to understand the biologicalbasis of most of the emotional disorders affecting human beings.Human brain and neurotransmitters are some of the most importantbiological components that influence biological processes in humanbody. These biological processes are responsible for human thoughts,feelings, and behavior (Carpenter &amp Huffman, 2013). Problems(such as chemical imbalances) with the brain or neurotransmitters canresult in mental illnesses. This implies that mental illnesses andhuman behavior in general are caused by both psychological as well asbiological factors. Therefore, comprehending the biological basis ofbehavior can help the clinical psychologist perform suitablediagnosis and recommend the most effective therapy for the client.

Q.2.:Biological research and emotional disorders

Biologicalresearch shows that there is a direct link between biologicalprocesses and emotional disorders as well as other mental illnesses.One of the most recent researches conducted by Weir (2012) seems tosupport the idea that all human illness (both physical andpsychological) are caused by dysfunctions in the biological process.This is based on the notion that all human mental process isperformed in the brain, which implies that disorder associated withmental functioning should be classified as biological diseases. Thebrain is a biological organ of the mind and any malfunctionsassociated wit the brain should not be differentiated from othertypes of disease, such as the common cold (Weir, 2012). A similarresearch conducted by the California Psychology Association (2014)has established a link between mental illnesses and defects in humangenes. The research showed that human genes that cause maniacdepression are located in the same chromosome with genes that causehemophilia and diabetes. This supports the notion that mentalillnesses have biological bases similar to other disease.

Q.3.:Contributions to the discipline of psychology

Althoughsocietal forces have always seemed to preclude the people of colorand women from contributing towards the field psychology, there aresome scholars from these marginalized groups who came up withsignificant psychological concepts. W.E. B. DuBois was an AfricanAmerican who developed the concept of double consciousness in hisbook “The Soul of Black Folk” in 1903 (Schaefer, 2008). Thephenomena of double consciousness describe a situation of perceivingone’s self from two different perspectives that is the AfricanAmerican and the dominant culture of the white people. This meansthat the minority were considered to suffer from psychologicaldisorders because they were judged using the measuring tick ofanother culture. Mary Calkins is one of the women who madesignificant contributions towards the progress of the field of humanpsychology. Calkins conducted research on memory and was appointedthe first woman president of the APA in 1905 (Carpenter &ampHuffman, 2013). In essence, the people of color and women have madesignificant contributions towards the field of psychology in spite ofthe challenges attempting to preclude them.

Q.4.:Where we start

Thefoundation of the field of psychology of western culture created somebiases that the modern psychologist are trying to eliminate.According Sinha (2002) most of the psychology texts focusing onintroductory psychology failed to give timely examples to explaincultural variations, which reflects ignorance with regard togeographical and material myopia. Consequently, most of thesub-fields (including social psychology) of psychology have remainedlargely based on the western culture, which is the major cause ofcultural bias in the field of psychology. Basing psychologicalassumptions and theories on western culture reduced the capacity ofthe early psychologists to establish universalism, thus reducing thepossibility of applying these theories in all cultural groups. Themainstream psychology has attempted to divorce behavior from culturalaspects in an attempt to establish universality and reduce thewestern cultural bias. Looking at the field of psychology acrossperspectives and different cultures is the most appropriate way ofreducing the bias and establishing universality in the field ofpsychology.


CaliforniaPsychology Association (2014). Theart and science of diagnosing and treating mental disorders.Sacramento,CA: California Psychology Association.

Carpenter,S. Huffman, K. (2013). VisualizingPsychology.John Willey &amp Sons Incorporation.

Schaefer,T. (2008). Encyclopediaof race, ethnicity, and society double consciousness.Thousands Oak: SAGE Publication.

Sinha,D. (2002). Culture and psychology: Perspective of cross-culturepsychology. PsychologyDeveloping Societies,14 (11), 1-16. DOI: 10.1177/097133360201400102

Weir,K. (2012). The roots of mental illness. AmericanPsychology Association,43 (6), 1-30.