Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY 4

WeekTwo Reflection

Howtheeyesees

Forone to seethere must be light.Thelighttendsto reflectoffandobject,andincaseoneis lookingat thatobjectitentersin theeye.On enteringtheeyethelightfirsttouchesa thintears’veil,thenpassesvia theaqueous humoreventuallypassingthrough thepupil.Thepupilactsas a lenshencefocusinglight.Thefocusedlightthattendsto be bathedin moisturethenbeamsvia theeye’scenter.Thelighteventuallyreachesits ultimatedestinationin theretina’s photoreceptors.Thesignalsthatphotoreceptors sendtravelthrough nervefibersto a nervebundlecalledopticnerve.Thenervesendsasignalto thevisualcenterthat existsin thebackof thebrainas electrochemical signalswherewhatwasseenis interpretedas an image(Viegas, 2001).

Howan earhears

Thesoundwavestraveluntil theygetto theeardrum through theearcanal.Theeardrum thenpassesthesevibrationsvia themiddleearbonesinto theinnerearknownasthe cochlea.Thecochlea has numeroustinyhaircellswhich transformthevibrationsinto theelectrical signalswhich are eventuallysentto thebrainvia hearingnerve.Thebrainhenceinterpretsthesoundthat washeard(Sherman, 2001).

Psychoactivedrug

Apsychoactive drugcan bedefinedas chemicalsubstancethat tendsto crosstheblood-brain barrierwhich actsprincipallyupon thecentralnervoussystem.Thecrossingof theblood-brain barriertendsto affectthebrainfunctioninghenceresultingto alterationsin mood,cognition,perception,consciousnessandbehavior(Julien, 2001).

Pavlov`sClassical Conditioning

Aclassicalconditioning can bedefinedas a methodof learningthatpossessesa significantinfluencein behaviorism, a schoolof thoughtin psychology.ItwasanIvan Pavlov`sdiscovery,a Russian physiologist.Itcan bedefinedasa learningprocessthat tendsto occurvia associationsbetween an environmental stimulusanda stimulusoccurringnaturally(Saunders, 2006).

References

Julien,R. M. (2001). Aprimer of drug action: A concise, nontechnical guide to the actions,uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs.New York, NY: W. H. Freeman [u.a..

Saunders,B. R. (2006). IvanPavlov: Exploring the mysteries of behavior.Berkeley Heights, N.J: Enslow Publishers

Sherman,J. (2001). Theear: Learning how we hear.New York, N.Y: Rosen Pub. Group.

Viegas,J. (2001). Theeye.New York: Rosen Publishing Group.