Parental Style and Socio-Emotional Development in Middle Childhood


ParentalStyle and Socio-Emotional Development in Middle Childhood


Thetype of parenting when raising a child normally has gross influenceon their socio-emotional development such as mood and angermanagement as the child grows into an adult. According to manyresearchers, parenting models employed by parents are based on fourvery important dimensions of parenting. They are the disciplinarystrategies, warmth and nurturance, communication skills andexpectations of maturity and self-control (Baumrind, 2010). The fourbasic parenting types that are discussed by many authors are


Inthe authoritarian parenting style, children are meant to followstrict rules that are established by their parents withoutquestioning. The children are as well not party to any decisionmaking in the family and are only expected to follow the rulesstrictly, failure to which they are punished.

Thechildren who go through the hands of theseauthoritarianparents will be obedient and always strive to follow the rules, butthey may be gloomy and develop some self-esteem problems. They mayalso become hostile or aggressiveand sometimes angry at their parents because of the constantpunishments (Kail&amp Cavanaugh, 2013).


Inauthoritative parenting, there are rules that children are expectedto follow, but the style is more democratic in nature. The parentsare responsive and are ready to listen to their children’squestions and problems. Authoritative parents typically useconsequences rather than punishments in case their set rules arebreached. They also tend to use positiveconsequences to reinforce good ethics inchildren (Baumrind, 2010).

Childrenraised by authoritative parents always happy and satisfied. They aretypically good at decision making, self-expression and evaluation ofrisks. (Maccoby, 2012).


Permissiveparents are also referred to as indulgent parents. They offer littlediscipline to their children and do not make several demands to thechildren. Permissive parents tend to sit back and only step in whenthey sense some serious problems with the children but still avoidconfrontation (Baumrind, 2010). Permissive parents also tend to takea friend role rather than the parent to their children. They may benurturing and communicative with the children as they talk anddiscuss issues freely, but this may not be enough to discourage thekids from some ill behaviour.

Childrenwho are brought up by permissive parents normally struggle to excelacademically and are always at loggerheads with the variousauthorities. Such children also tend to rank lowly in happiness,self-esteem and self-regulation.


Uninvolvedparenting is characterized by negligence, low responsiveness and fewdemands from the parents. These parents often meet the basic needs ofthe children but normally do little to raise the children (Carlson,2011). Uninvolved parents at times have little or no knowledge ofwhat the children are doing. They rarely come up with rules orexpectations. Such children lack nurturing or guidance due to minimalparentalattention. Such parents at times suffer frommental health problems or substance abuse problems. They may alsotend to reject the children when other life problems overwhelm them(Bernstein, 2011).

Childrenraised by uninvolved parents tend to lack happiness, self-esteem andperforms poorly in academic matters. They also have frequentbehaviour problems.


Baumrind,D. (2010). The Influence of Parenting Style on Adolescent Competenceand Substance Use. Journalof Early Adolescence,11(1), 56-95.

Bernstein,D. A. (2011). Essentialsof psychology.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Carlson,J. E. (2011). Theparent effect: How parenting style affects adolescent behaviour andpersonality development. Washington,D.C: NASW Press.

Kail,R. V., &amp Cavanaugh, J. (2013). HumanDevelopment: A Life-Span View (6th Ed). Belmont: Cengage Learning/Wadsworth.

Maccoby,E.E. (2012). The Role of Parents in the Socialization of Children: AnHistorical Overview. DevelopmentalPsychology,28, 1006-1017.