Micro Biology Immune system


MicroBiology Immune system

Immunesystem is a biological system designed to defend the body againstillnesses. It usually consists of two major components humoral andcellular. Humoral relates to body fluids such as serum, whilecellular relates to specific cells (Stewart, 2009).

Thehumoral response is also referred to as antibody mediated response.It involves B cells that respond against pathogens and antigens byproducing plasma cells. These cells produce antibodies that bind tospecific antigens. B cells also produce memory cells that act againstantigens much faster in future in case of a similar antigen attack(Janewayet al, 2001).

Onthe other hand, cellular or mediated immunity does not involveantibodies. Instead, it involves the activation of T cells thatresponds to any cells that display aberrant MHC markers, whichinclude cells invaded by transplanted cells, tumor cells, orpathogens. Cellular response is linked to humoral immunity when Tcells release interleukins that stimulate B cells to make antibodiesthat bind with specific antigens and fuel nonspecific agents thatdestroys antigens (Abbas,Lichtman &amp Pillai, 1994).

Anexample of humoral immune response disease is chicken pox, which iscaused by varicella zoster virus. B cells produce antibodies that actagainst the virus to fight infection. These B cells also producememory cells that prevent future infection. As such, people are onlyinfected with chicken pox once in a lifetime because the memory cellsrecognize and destroy the virus once they are introduced in the body.

Adisease that responds to immune system is helicobacter pylori. Tcells recognize the cells infected with bacteria and destroy thembefore they have time to replicate. With regard to this infection, Tcells also activate B cells to produce antibodies. As such, cellularresponse plays a critical role in combating bacterial infection.


Abbas,A. K., Lichtman, A. H., &amp Pillai, S. (1994). Cellularand molecular immunology.Elsevier Health Sciences.

Janeway,C. A., Travers, P., Walport, M. J., &amp Shlomchik, M. J. (2001).Immunobiology:the immune system in health and disease(Vol. 2). Churchill Livingstone.

Stewart,G. (2009). TheImmune System.New York: Infobase Pub.