Managing Cultural Diversity in Nestle UK PLC

Managing Cultural Diversityin Nestle UK PLC

(YOUR NAME)

Supervised by

(NAME IF YOUR SUPERVISOR)

October 19th2014

Dissertation submitted inpartial fulfilment for the degree of

Submitted to

Newham University Centre

Acknowledgement

Iwould like to thank the entire university fraternity for theirsupporting environment during the entire research for thisdissertation. Special thanks go to the employees from Nestle UK Plc.who accepted to participate in the research through interviews andquestionnaires. I also extend my gratitude to the participants fortheir honest and straightforward answers during the interviews. Thecompany’s management also gave me an excellently friendly researchenvironment. Special thanks go to the human resource manager of thecompany for allowing the employees to participate in the research.

I waswould like to thank my supervisor for the guidance, support, words ofencouragement and assistance throughout the study. Finally, I wouldlike to thank my fellow students for their support and input duringthe entire study.

Table ofContents

Acknowledgement 2

Abstract 5

Chapter one 6

1.0 Introduction 6

1.2 Research questions 7

1.3 Problem statement 8

Chapter two 9

2.0 Literature review 9

Chapter three 13

3.0 Research methodology 13

Chapter four 16

4.0 Data results 16

Chapter five 21

5.0 Discussion 21

5.1 Cultural diversity in the context of Nestle UK PLC. 23

5.2 Identification of cultural diversity at Nestle UK PLC 25

5.3 Identification of the cultural dimensions and dilemmas in Nestle UK Plc. 27

5.4 Application of cultural dimensional theory 32

5.5 Importance of cultural diversity in Nestle UK Plc. 35

5.6 Benefits of cross cultural diversity in Nestle UK Plc. 37

5.7 The role cross cultural diversity plays in Nestle UK Plc. 40

5.8 Implications of mismanaging cultural diversity among members of staff at Nestle UK Plc. 42

5.9 Effects of cultural diversity on the overall operations of Nestle UK Plc. 44

5.10 Impact of cultural diversity on teamwork 45

5.11 Impact of cultural diversity on leadership 46

5.12 Impact of cultural diversity on finance and productivity 47

Chapter six 49

6.0 Conclusion 49

6.1 Recommendations 50

References 52

Appendix 1 Questionnaires 61

Abstract

Thisresearch focused on the main aspects of cultural diversity at NestleUK Plc. And how the company manages the same. Interviews wereconducted where sampling was done to select 20 employees who wereinterviewed. They included 5 senior managers at the company. Thefindings of the interviews are analysed in the literature reviewbelow. The findings of this research has found out that culturaldiversity is a crucial part of the company. It is also clear from theresearch that when cultural diversity is mismanaged, the consequencesare dire. The benefits of cultural diversity are only realized if theworkforce of the company is effectively managed. It was also foundout that the global reputation of the company has been achieved as aresult of extensive cultural diversity management policies andprinciples.

Keywords:Cultural diversity, Global Reputation, cultural values, beliefs andpreferences.

Chapterone

  1. Introduction

Itcannot be contested that the contemporary world is a complexcombination of people from all cultures. Be it political, gender,race, colour, language or religion, these cultures are equallyrepresented in the community. This is the same case in most of themultinational companies or even local companies in many countries. Inthis regard, cultural diversity can be viewed as the representationof the various cultures age, language, gender, religion, colour andothers in a community. In the workplace, cultural diversity has beena hot-button issue that requires the management to adopt variousstrategies of curbing intolerance. Cultural diversity seeks to ensurethat the different cultures and principles are respected and valuedwithin the community. Cultural diversity accepts, values, respectsand celebrates the way people live and interact in the community. Itis through cultural diversity that people are able to realize thatall people, irrespective of their language, countries of origin,colour or even religion, aspire for some common elements such assecurity, acceptance and equity. This research study focused on themanagement of cultural diversity at Nestle UK Plc. as the case study.

A study onNestle UK Plc. Found out that management of cultural diversity is avital activity that has numerous benefits. The advantages range fromproductivity, to motivation of employees, as well as cost reduction.Some of the multinational organizations that have embraced culturaldiversity and managed it well such as Microsoft have recordedenormous success and huge profits over the years. Employees of thesecompanies comprise of women, the disabled, blacks, white, Asian,Chinese and many other people with varying cultural backgrounds(Syed, J., &amp Özbilgin, 2010).Companies that fail to provide opportunities of employment to peoplefrom varying cultural backgrounds tend to lose customers of suchcultural backgrounds.

The studyused both primary and secondary research strategies to accomplish itsobjectives. Interviews and questionnaires were the main primaryresearch strategies that the research applied. The aim of theresearch was to find out the management of cultural diversity atNestle UK. Plc. The primary research strategies provided the bestapproach to get first hand information from the employees and themanagement at the firm. Secondary research strategies includedresearch on the internet, books and journals. It is prudent to notethat the topic of cultural diversity and its management is widelydiscussed and therefore enormous information on the internet and onvarious books and journals.

Varioustheories are applicable to the aspect of cultural diversity. One ofthe theories is the Hofstede`s cultural dimensions theory. This is atheory that highlights the differences of various cultures on thebasis of their values and beliefs. The theory is practicallyapplicable when trying to manage cultural diversity in anorganization such as Nestle UK Plc. The theory calls for respects,recognition and valuation of every culture. The other diversitytheory that can be viewed in this study is the cultural deficittheory. Although the theory seems to undermine some communities, itis essential to realise that the knowledge and the insight offered bythe theory is essential in understand the minority groups in thecompany who might feel discriminated.

Variousmultinational organizations such as Nestle UK PLC attract employeesfrom over 100 countries across the world (Adams&amp Welsch,2007). It is evident that such a pool of employeeswill constitute of people with varying cultural backgrounds. As aresult, cultural diversity is prominent in these organizations. Theissue of managing cultural diversity has been a thorny issue to themanagement of many multinational companies or organizations. Theprimary issue has been how to manage the employees and at the sametime enhance their productivity in order to meet the set organizationgoals.

The roleof this study is to identify the various management strategies thatthe Nestle UK PLC applies in order to gain maximum benefit from itsdiverse cross-cultural pool of employees. The study also seeks toidentify the various roles that cross-cultural diversity plays at thecompany. It is also within this study that the effects of mismanagingthe cultural diversity have been widely explored for Nestle UK PLC.It is clear that cultural diversity has numerous effects of anorganizations management. This is also a phenomenon that affectsteamwork, leadership, finance, operations and productivity. With thisrealization, it is only prudent for this paper to find out thevarious effects that cultural diversity at Nestle UK PLC has on theabove mentioned aspects of the company.

Inconclusion, with advent of globalization, the issue of culturaldiversity became increasingly prevalent. Although Nestle UK PLC hadalready started strategies to manage cultural diversity, it will beconfirmed that globalization marked a significant shift in themanagement of cultural diversity. It is, however, worth stating thatthe issue of cultural diversity did not specifically emerge as aresult of globalization. People have since time immemorial co-existedand tolerated each other’s cultural beliefs and principles.

Thischapter focused on the introduction part of the topic and thehighlighted some of tenets of cultural diversity. The chapter alsohighlighted some of the elements of management of cultural diversity.The following chapter focuses on the literature that has already beendeveloped by scholars with regard to the cultural diversity and itsmanagement.

1.2 Research questions

This research study sought toanswer the following questions

  1. Are employees at Nestle UK Plc. Feel that their cultural values, beliefs and preferences are respected?

  2. Has Nestle UK Plc. embraced diversity

  3. What are some of the measures that the company has taken to ensure that cultural diversity is well managed

  4. Has cultural been beneficial to the company

  5. What are some of the negative effects of cultural diversity at the company

  6. Has the company ever been sued for discriminating against employees on the basis of their cultural values

1.3 Problem statement

Culturaldiversity has been as aspect that has gained momentum and meaning inthe last decade or two. The aspect has brought together culturalvalues, beliefs and preferences from all across the world to placessuch as workplaces and institutions of learning. The benefits orshortcomings of cultural diversity are dependent on the ability tomanage the aspect effectively. Poor management of the aspect canresult in dire consequences while proper management brings out thenumerous benefits of cultural diversity.

Nestle UKPLC. Has been one of the primary companies that have managed culturaldiversity extremely well and have managed to benefit immensely fromit.

Chaptertwo

  1. Literature review

Culturaldiversity is the existence of people from different culturalbackgrounds in a community where they uphold and respect the culturaldifferences amongst themselves. Diversity can be defined as the stateof being different or being in the form of unlikeness. Therefore,cultural diversity must involve more than one culture beingrepresented in a specific context. Equality on the other hand is theaspect of being balanced or uniform with regard to quantity, degree,value or rank. Within the definition of cultural diversity are thevarious elements of cultural backgrounds that must be put intoconsideration (Baer, 2004). Differentpeople in a community such as the workplace comprise of individualswith different languages, colour, religious and politicalaffiliations, age, gender and even race.

The worldis a place where people from different cultures with varying values,beliefs and preferences exist. As a result, people have had tointeract and learn different cultural values from their friends,neighbours, workmates or even classmates. Immigration,intermarriages, globalization and business has brought people ofdifferent cultures together and most countries in the world havebecome homes to multiculturalists’ societies (Hooper-Greenhill,2007). The developed countries have attractednumerous people from the developing countries and this has led toimmense intercultural interactions. The term cultural diversityrefers to the existence of people from different cultural backgroundsacross the world (Koopmans, 2005). Theelements which are looked into when discussing cultural diversityinclude and are not limited to race, ethnicity, country of origin,gender and physical capabilities. In light of some aspects such aslanguage barriers and cultural preferences, cultural diversity hasbeen associated with conflicts and misunderstandings between andamongst people of different cultures.

There arenumerous negative effects associated with cultural diversity. One ofthe main negative effects of cultural diversity is the discriminationand stereotyping that is subjected to the minority groups. Thecultural deficit theory has clearly indicated that there are somecultural groups who are discriminated upon on the basis of theirculture. The cultural aspect may include race, colour, religion oreven country of origin. Cultural diversity can lead to conflicts inthe work place. It is evident that different people will have varyingpoints of view and when collaborative decisions cannot be arrive at,conflict is inevitable. Cultural diversity can also lead to lowproductivity at the work place. When there are conflicts andmisunderstandings in the work place, productivity will significantlygo down. Additionally, cultural diversity brings people from acrossthe world who speaks different languages. Therefore, culturaldiversity may lead to poor communication between the variousemployees.

In orderto realize some of the benefits of cultural diversity, institutionsof learning and multinational enterprises must manage culturaldiversity effectively. Governments across the world have embarked ondeveloping laws and policies that would enhance the coexistence ofpeople from all cultures across the world (Ree et al., 2010).It is notable that cases of racism in the United States and Germanyhave been prevalent in last decades and this called for stringentmeasures to curb racism and other forms of discrimination andstereotyping.

One of themost common places where cultural diversity is manifested is theworkplace. A majority of the multinational companies andorganizations have a diverse workforce. They include Coca Cola,Microsoft, Nestle, Toyota and IBM. These are organizations that havepooled employees from all over the world. As a result, they mustmanage their employees well in order to achieve optimum productivityfrom them. Respect for each other’s cultural values is a keyelement for organizational success. A diverse workforce is able tocome up with diverse ideas and opinions, as well as solutions andtherefore achieve organizational goals and ultimate success.

Literaturestudies have revealed that he main role of managing culturaldiversity is to avoid the negative effects of multiculturalism (CLChuman resources, 2012). Some cultures feelsuperior to others and therefore there needs to be policies and lawsthat inhibit such cultures from dominating or belittling othercultures. For instance, literature studies have revealed that theblack community has been for long been dominated by the whitecommunity. In other words, the culture of the black people especiallyfrom Africa has been viewed as the underdog as opposed to the whiteman culture which has been viewed as being superior. Additionally,research has indicated that women have been side-lined when it comesto appointments or promotions to senior management posts. Managementof cultural diversity seeks to eliminate such discriminations andoppressions.

Inconclusion, this section on literature review has provided criticalbackground information on the topic of management of culturaldiversity at the workplace. It is clear that cultural diversity canhave positive and negative effects to a company based on themanagement of the same. Cultural diversity should not be viewed as asource of differences but as a congregation of strengths anddifferent viewpoints which would be beneficial to the company.Globalization, intermarriages and immigration have been viewed assome of the factors that have contributed to the multiculturalismnature of the society. Companies that embrace and manage culturaldiversity effectively are able to acquire a global reputation andattract customers from across the world. Various subtopics have beenlooked into as a means of exploring the topic of cultural diversityto the fullest. The following chapter is the research methodologyused, which includes, but not limited to the various methods used togather data, data analysis and some of the ethical considerations inthe research.

Thischapter focussed on the benefits and shortcomings of culturaldiversity. The chapter has highlighted some of the literature oncultural diversity and its management. The following chapter is onthe research methods applied in the research.

Chapterthree

  1. Research methodology

Themethodology in this research used qualitative method of datacollection. Non-structured interviews with the senior managers atNestle UK were the major sources of information. The non-structurednature of the interviews enabled me to ask open ended questions thatwere not initially included in the set of questions, but which cameup during the interview. Junior employees from different culturalbackgrounds, who were selected randomly were also asked the interviewquestions. These interviews were essential in understanding theexperience of the interviewees at the workplace with regard to theirculture. It is also worth stating that the interviews were recordedafter informing the interviewees.

Questionnaireswere also used as a major source of collecting data. Structuredquestions were given to randomly selected employees from the company.It was voluntary for the participants to answer the questions. Thedata collected from the questionnaires and the interviews wasanalysed using discourse analysis. This is a method that describesthe results of the written or spoken answers from the participants.Personal interpretation of data was also used. This methodology wasextremely useful in understanding the experiences of the employees.The interview method enabled me to develop trust with theinterviewees who were able to develop confidence and provided deepanswers and clarifies points. Grounded theory of qualitative researchwas applied in this research. It is an interactive process thatallows the research to set research questions and objectives. Thetheory enables the development of data and information collection forthe formation of other theories. The grounded theory enabled thecontinuous flow and research on the topic including the developmentof the research methodologies.

Myintention was to interview and provide questionnaires to the minoritygroups at the company such as women and the disabled. However,whereas women and other minority groups were interviewed the majoritywere also interviewed and also took part in the questionnaires. Itook approximately two weeks explaining the purpose of the interviewsand the questionnaires to the participants. The information collectedfrom the participants was treated with utmost confidentiality so asnot to reveal personal details such as the names of the participants.Bias and subjectivity were the major issues relating to the study anddata collection. This is topic that was developed from thetheoretical classroom studies and therefore bias and prejudice mayhave been prevalent.

Researchonion circle

Research philosophy

Case study

Systems thinking

Interviews

Deductive

Research approach

Questionnaires

Cross sectional

Inductive

Research methodology

Internet, journals, books

Time horizons

Data collection methods

The above diagram indicates ageneric research process onion that the researcher followed to choosethe data collection methods. The layers represented include the datacollection methods, time horizons, research methodology, researchapproach and research philosophy. The selection of the variousspecific processes in the circle culminated to the research design.

There werevarious challenges that were encountered during the interviews andthe questionnaires. To start with, a few candidates were unwilling toparticipate in the study for fear of being exposed. It was also achallenge to select the right percentages of the participants. Notall the participants from the different cultural groups that werewilling to participate in the study. It was a challenge to convincethe participants that whatever they would say would be treated withutmost confidentiality. Most of the participants feared the reactionof the management. The procedure of gaining the right place for theinterview and the appropriate time when a majority of theparticipants were free was a major challenge in the data collectionprocess.

Althoughsome of the challenges were difficult to overcome, most of them weresolved and the collection of the date runs smoothly. The participantswho had shown apprehension for participating in the process wereassured of their secrecy and the confidentiality of the informationthey gave. This made most of them to accept and participate in theprocess. Numerous candidates were randomly selected, before settlingdown on various participants who formed the team of my intervieweesand people who answered the questionnaires.

The company accepted to giveme a room where I would conduct my interviews. However, themanagement made it clear that the interviews had to be short sincethe employees had to resume their duties as quickly as possible.

Researchon the internet, books, journals and articles were also majorresearch methodologies. They provided useful information relating tothe company under study. Books and journals provided extensiveliterature on the topic under study. The data collected from thesesources was keenly sorted and analysed before being rewritteneffectively.

Inconclusion, it is worth noting that the research methods describedabove were used simultaneously to gather information. The interviewsand the questionnaires provided the most vital information that wasused to develop this research study document. Books, journals andarticles discussing the issue cultural diversity were also widelyexplored and they provided extremely vital information. The use ofthese multifaceted sources and methods of gathering informationunderpins the authenticity of the information provided in thisresearch study.

The chapter has highlightedthe research methods that the research used. They includedinterviews, questionnaires, the internet, journals and articles. Thefollowing chapter focuses on the data results from the research.

Chapterfour

  1. Data results

A total of 20 employees wereinvolved in the questionnaires and 10 employees of the company wereinterviewed. The data collected from the employees has been tabulatedbelow and later graphically represented. The table below shows thenumbers and percentages of participants in terms of gender.

Gender

Number

Percentage

Male

12

60

Female

8

40

The responses given by therespondent with regard to the various questions presented to themduring the interviews and the questionnaires are presented below.With regard to whether employees believed that their culture wasrepresented and respected at the workplace, the results were asfollows.

80% of the respondentsbelieved that their cultural values were respected at the workplace.Additionally, 15% said that their cultural values were not fullyrespected at the working place while only 5 % argued that theirrights and values were not respected. However, the devaluation anddisrespect was not severe to the extent of warranting law suits.

Participants were also askedwhether they preferred cultural days organized by the company. Theresults or the findings from the participants showed that 90% of theemployees were happy about the cultural days and wished the companywould make them more frequent. 10 % of the participants thought thatthe cultural days were unhelpful and the company should scrap themoff their calendar.

Below is a graphicalrepresentation of the above percentages:

The participants were alsoasked whether they learnt any cultural values from their fellowworkmates. This question was meant to determine whether the companyhad set up strategies that would enable the employees to learn eachother’s cultural values. 85% of the participants said that they hadlearnt a lot from their workmates. 10% of the respondents said thatthey had learnt a substantial but not sufficient cultural values fromtheir workmates. The rest 5% argued that they had not learnt anycultural values from their workmates.

Below is a graphicalrepresentation of their responses

Besides the above datarepresentation, the following statements were also given by some ofthe employees I interviewed. I have put the statements as they weresaid by the participants without any alterations whatsoever.

Male black employee:“Since joining Nestle UK, I have never, for a single day feltdiscriminated or left out in the decision making process of thecompany…….”

A white employee: “Thisis the best place to work since my cultural values and preferencesare respected……..”

A woman employee:“although the male employees are more than we are, I feel thecompany has done enough for us and there is nothing to complain of………”

Young female employee:“I learn a lot from the old folks and I feel respected andappreciated…..I wouldn’t leave this company for a better one…….”

A senior manager: “……weoffer our employees the opportunity to learn each other’s cultureby placing them in teams where they interact freely……….

Disabled employee:“……I have come to realize that disability is not inability inthis company, I have been accorded sufficient support and care…………..”

Marketer:“…..asa marketer, I have been able to realize that the company cares for mycultural values and beliefs…….I have been sent to various placeswhere I work with both people from my cultural background, as well asother cultural backgrounds…………..”

Newly recruitedemployee:“……after I joined this company, I was givensufficient orientation and training with regard to the variouscultural values and how to respect them…..my workmates have givenme the best welcome and a very warm working environment………..”

Thedata above has clearly indicated that the company has managedcultural diversity extremely well. The percentage of the employees(80%), who feel comfortable working at the company is a hugepercentage. Equally, the responses that I have stated above from thefew of the respondents in the interviews are an indication of thelevel of satisfaction that employees have working at the company. Itis vital to note that the employees gave correct answers since theywere assured that their names will not be exposed.

The following chapterprovides the discussion of the management of cultural diversity atthe company in a deeper manner. It is, however, important to notethat the information provided in the discussion chapter is as aresult of the data provided above.

Chapter five

  1. Discussion

Accordingto the data results in the above chapter, it is evidently clear thatthe participants were comfortable with the management of culturaldiversity at the company. When a question was presented to theparticipants as to whether their cultural values were respected atthe company, the responses given were highly indicative of a companythat respects and values and preferences of all cultures. 80% of therespondents in the interview and the questionnaires were comfortablewith how their cultural values were treated at the company. 15% ofthe respondents said that their cultural values were respected, butmore needed to be done. The remaining 5% of the respondents said thatthey cultural values were not respected at the company.

These results are a clearindication of the measures that the company has put in place withregard to the respect and appreciation of other cultural values andpreferences. The few respondents who felt that their cultural valueswere not respected were found not to have taken any legal measuresagainst the company. This is a clear indication that the disrespectwas tolerable and not severe to an extent of warranting a law suitagainst the company.

With regard to the questionof whether the cultural days at the company were vital, therespondents stated as follows. 90% of the employees were happy aboutthe cultural days and wished the company would make them morefrequent. 10 % of the participants thought that the cultural dayswere unhelpful and the company should scrap them off their calendar.This is a clear indication that a vast majority of the employeesrepresented by the participants, valued the cultural days and did notfeel intimated by the values and preferences of other cultures.

In order to fully understandwhether the management of cultural diversity at the company yieldedany fruits, respondents were asked whether they learnt any culturalvalues and preferences from their workmates. The responses indicatedthat a majority of the employees at the company valued and learntenormous values from other cultures. 85% of the participants saidthat they had learnt a lot from their workmates. 10% of therespondents said that they had learnt a substantial but notsufficient cultural values from their workmates. The rest 5% arguedthat they had not learnt any cultural values from their workmates.Although there was a small percentage (5%), who said they did notlearn any cultural values, it is evident that the company has ensuredthat numerous cultural values, beliefs and preferences are wellrepresented in the company. The management enhances integration andplaced team members from different cultural groups together.

The statements from therespondents sent a message of satisfaction of working at Nestle UK.Statements such as “Since joining Nestle UK, I have never, for asingle day felt discriminated or left out in the decision makingprocess of the company…….”are a clear indication of thevarious measures that the company has put in place to ensure thatevery employee was comfortable and felt appreciated. It is worthnoting that this was a statement from amale black employee who isfrom a culture that is mainly considered a minority.

Additionally, a female youngemployee gave the following statement, “I learn a lot from theold folks and I feel respected and appreciated…..I wouldn’t leavethis company for a better one…….”. This is a cleartestimony from a young woman who believes that Nestle UK plays aleading role in enhancing cultural diversity. All employees whoresponded to the interview questions and questionnaires wereconfident that the company has done sufficiently in managing thevarious cultural values, beliefs and preferences found at thecompany.

After the conclusion of theinterviews and the questionnaires, the data collected was used tobring out the following themes which are discussed in detail underthe following subheadings.

5.1 Culturaldiversity in the context of Nestle UK PLC.

Nestle UKPLC has employees from cross the world and it serves clients from allwalks of life. As a result, it would be inevitable for the company tooperate without embracing cultural diversity.Nestle UK PLC cannot beexempted from the numerous multinational companies that must deal theissue of cultural diversity. The employees of Nestle UK PLC compriseof employees from all corners of the world. The employees subscribeto different languages, religions, age, gender and race and it is therole of the company to ensure that these employees work together inharmony so as to achieve the organizational goals of the company.

Nestle UKPLC has realized the role that cultural diversity plays in thecompany. As a result, the company has adopted numerous laws andprinciples that govern the behaviours of its employees (CLChuman resources, 2012). It is mandatory for allthe employees at the company to show respect, dignity andappreciation of the various cultures that other employees, customersand shareholders subscribe to. United Kingdom, as it is well known,is one of the few places on earth where people from all over theworld are found. Globalization enabled millions of people from allcontinents of the word to migrate into the United Kingdom. Thisimplies that Nestle must also embrace such cultural diversity.Whereas the workforce of the company comprises people from all overworld and with different cultural backgrounds, it is imperative tonote that the company hires and promotes people on the basis of meritas opposed to cultural background.

In thecontext of Nestle UK PLC, cultural diversity relates to the variouspolicies, laws and strategies that the company management employs toenhance integration and productivity. Nestle being one of the largestFood and Beverage Company in the world, it is prudent to ensure thatit creates an image to the world that portrays tolerance, acceptanceand respect for all the people irrespective of their colour, race,gender, religion or political affiliations. Cultural context atNestle UK does not only pertain to the employees only, but also tothe customers and other stakeholders in the company. Since thecompany deals with products that are used by people worldwide fromall backgrounds, the company must serve all the clients with respectand dignity without considering their backgrounds or status insociety.

Culturaldiversity at Nestle UK implies that the company has a global status.It is evident that the clients, who form the integral part of thecompany, contribute immensely to the successful operation of thecompany despite their varying cultural backgrounds. Therefore, toNestle UK, it is their responsibility to value and respect allstakeholders in the company (Ferreira et al., 2009).The company has achieved its tremendous growth through thecontributions of the various people from different culturalbackgrounds.

Thecompany has the mandate of managing this cultural diversity in orderto ensure that it translates to productivity within the company. Moreoften than not, cases of cultural diversity intolerance have beenrecorded not only in the UK, but also in other developed countriessuch as the United States where racism was rife in the 18thcentury and half the 19thcentury. To Nestle UK, failure to properly manage cultural diversitywould have tremendous negative effects on the operations,productivity and profitability of the company. The company believesin the culture of having mutual respect for each other andcollaboration.

Cultural diversity in thecontext of this company means that the company uses its strategies ofmanaging diversity to reduce turnover. By having respect and showingappreciation for all the employees, it is a clear message thatemployees will feel comfortable and satisfied working at the company.Additionally, the stringent measures with regard to respect and valuefor all cultures enables the company to only attract the bestemployees from across the world.

5.2Identification of cultural diversity at Nestle UK PLC

Culturaldiversity, as discussed above, revolves around the presence of peoplefrom various cultural backgrounds in the workplace. At Nestle UK,cultural diversity can be identified through various means andobservations. A closer look at the distribution of employees at thecompany is a clear indication of cultural diversity within thecompany. Being in the UK, Nestle UK PLC faced one of the primarychallenges of ensuring that the company’s workforce comprised ofemployees who were both competitive and adhered to laws andprinciples of the company with regard to diversity (Cox, 2008). Inorder to identify cultural diversity at the company, it is prudent tostudy the entire workforce. It is vital to analyse the employees inall the departments of the company such as marketing, finance, humanresources and management. The workforce of the Nestle UK shouldcomprise of people from all cultural backgrounds.

A lookinto the company’s workforce has shown that the company comprisesof employees from all over the world and also from various culturalbackgrounds. Employees at the company subscribe to different races,have varying skin colour, originate from different countries, theyare from both genders and include people from all ages. In terms ofgender, Nestle UK has been in the frontline in fighting for genderequality. Women have been offered sufficient employment opportunitiesat the company at a level that have surpassed the legal minimumpercentage. For instance, Fiona Kendrick, a woman has been offeredthe position of a CEO in the company. This is a clear indication fromthe top management of the commitment that the company has with regardto enhancing cultural diversity.

In theyear 2014, the company has embarked on an extensive campaign that isaimed at providing employment opportunities to the youth. The companyseeks to hire young people and provide them with the necessary skillsto find employment. To Nestle UK, age is not a factor to considerwhile hiring or offering opportunities for growth. This clearly showshow cultural diversity exists within the culture of the company.Whereas the company may need experienced employees, it is evidentthat the management wants a stable balance between people of all agesin their workforce. Although the old people may have the necessaryexperience, it is evident that the young people will enhance theproduction speed.

Thepresence of written laws and policies with regard to respect andvalue for other cultures is a clear signal of the existence ofcultural diversity. These are rules and regulations are meant tocreate a working environment that is conducive for all employees.Besides following the legal requirements of ensuring that there isrespect and appreciation for the various cultures exhibited at theworkplace, it is evident to realize that the policies of the companyregarding appreciating diverse cultures are extremely stringent.According to the principles of the company, respect for otherindividual has been described as being non-negotiable. A company thatfails to set up such laws or policies with regard to culturaldiversity sends the signal that cultural diversity does not exist insuch a company. Nestle UK also embarks on training and orientationfor any new employee. Such employees are informed of the policies andlaws regarding cultural diversity at the company. This is anindication that the company appreciates the cultural diversity thatexists within the company.

Anotherway through which cultural diversity can be identified in Nestle UKPLC is through the customers that the company serves and how itserves them. Whereas customers form the integral part of the company,the management of the company has ensured that they are treated withrespect and dignity regardless of their color, race, ethnicity,country or origin, gender or even age (Hallinan &amp Jackson, 2008).The company exports over $300 million worth of products to customerall over the world. This is a reflection of the company’s culturaldiversity and worldwide existence. Were it that the company onlyserves a number of customers from ethnic group or nationality, it isevident that it wouldn’t be serving a global customer base.

Nestle UKPLC has immense respect for the diverse cultures exhibited by theemployees, suppliers and customers. As a result, the company hasinvested heavily in training and induction programs for all newemployees (Henderson, 2007). Training does not only occur duringinduction stage, but there are meetings and conferences which areaimed at highlighting the need for respect of the various cultures.These meetings and conferences are aimed at enhancing culturalawareness and adoption of the different cultures. These are measureswhich can be directly related or connected to the presence ofcultural diversity in the company. They are steps that send out asignal to the critics that the company does not only realize thepresence of cultural diversity, but also embraces it and values it.

5.3 Identification of thecultural dimensions and dilemmas in Nestle UK Plc.

Trompenaarsand Hampden-Turner developed the 7 dimensions or values of culture,which a majority of organizations across the world use to manage thecoexistence of different people from different cultures across theworld. At Nestle UK, employees are from different cultures across theworld and from different cultures. Research has indicated that theseemployees work well with one another with mutual respect and valuefor the diverse cultures. Every culture across the world hasdifferent values which it subscribes to (Henry, 2013). These valuesare extremely important to the cultural group in reference. Thesevalues are largely embedded to the beliefs, values and paradigms thatvarious ethnic, countries, genders and other social groups hold onto.

The sevendimensions of culture developed by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turnerseek to identify the areas upon which the different values fromdifferent cultures vary. Within Nestle UK Plc., culture is anextremely essential factor. This is because culture provides thecontext upon which employees interact with one another as well aswith the outside world. The seven dimensions of culture, with thevalues and beliefs that they are attached to, exist at Nestle UK Plc.The first dimension that can be identified at Nestle UK Plc. is theuniversalism-particularism dimension of culture (Hogan-Garcia, 2013).This is a dimension of culture that highlights the standard uponwhich relationships are measured. In a Universalist society, the setout rules and regulations reign supreme as the primary source ofmoral reference. There are numerous employees at Nestle UK Plc. whosubscribe to the values of this dimension. These employees fromwithin the UK and also from the US and Canada. Nestle UK Plc. hasemployees who belong to particularism societies such as China andRussia. They are employees who rely on circumstances to makedecisions. The company’s management has considered this and has putmeasures in place to deal with employees of these nature in order toenhance cooperation and smooth coexistence of different cultures.

Thedimension of individualism versus the communitarianism is the mostcommon within Nestle UK plc. There are employees who have anindividualistic culture whereby they value personal freedom andindividual development. They are individuals who hardly consult whenmaking decisions pertaining to the interests of the groups theybelong to (Hiwaki, 2011). On the other hand, there are numerousemployees within the company who also believe in the value of groupinterests as opposed to individual interests. These are the employeeswho subscribe to the communitarian society. It is worth noting thatNestle UK Plc. believes and embraces team work. In this regard, it isclear that the employees who subscribe to the communitarian approachare more suited to work in the company than those who areindividualistic (Daft, 2010). However, the company has made sure thatall employees provided with the necessary environments and workstations where their talents, beliefs, values and culturalpreferences can optimally be utilized.

Thedimension of specific versus the diffuse values can also beidentified at Nestle UK plc. There are employees and stakeholderswithin the company who always keep their person lives and their workseparate. These are the employees at the company who subscribe to thespecific dimension of culture. These people who do not valuerelationships at work and they believe that they can work withoutnecessarily having good relationships (Kirkman &amp Shapiro, 2005).This is, however, contrary to the policies of Nestle UK, whose mainobjective is to develop relationships with all stakeholders. On theother hand, individuals at the company who subscribe to the diffusedimension of culture, have an overlap between their work and theirpersonal life. They are people who value good relationships as anessential factor of achieving success. Nestle UK has numerousemployees who value good relationships. This is one group ofemployees who are vital to the success of the company.

There isno organization which does not have employees from the followingcultural dimension. The neutral dimension of culture has people whohave a great control of their emotions and they apply reason ratherthan feelings in their actions. These employees are believed to bethe best by Nestle UK Plc. (Gasparini, &amp Cometti, 2010). Themanagement of the company understands these employees and watchestheir body language as that may be conveying some feelings oremotions which the employees fail to display publicly. On thecontrary, emotional employees also do exist at Nestle UK plc. Theseis a group of employees, especially female employees, who expresstheir emotions publicly at work (Tierney, 2007). These are employeeswho belong to cultures where expression of emotions is allowed.However, at Nestle UK Plc. expression of emotions at work may impedethe performance of such an employee and may also affect theperformance of other employees.

The otherdimension that can be identified at Nestle UK Plc. is the achievementversus the ascription cultural dimension. The achievement dimensionhas employees or stakeholders who believe in performance regardlessof the position that a person holds in society or in the workplace.Nestle UK has always ensured that it hires people who are focused onperformance rather than positions (De Villar, 2009). Whereas highmanagement positions are a preference for many, the company ensuresthat people get to such positions as a result of their performances.The ascription dimension of culture can also be identified at NestleUK Plc. these are the type of employees who believe that power andpositions, as opposed to performance are critical in valuing aperson. This is a cultural value that is highly discouraged at NestlePlc. The company enhances performance and power, titles or highpositions are associated with exemplary performance (Okoro &ampWashington, 2012). It is worth noting that employees from countriessuch as japan, Italy and Saudi Arabia are most likely to be inclinedto this dimension of culture. However, it is worth stating thatemployees at Nestle UK Plc. are screened individually and there isstereotyping.

Thepresence of the above discussed dimensions at Nestle Plc. are asource of a huge cultural dilemma. The company’s workforce is apool and a center of social cultural encounters. People withdifferent values, beliefs and preferences from varying culturalbackgrounds assemble at the company (Lewis, 2012). It is clear thatthere will be dilemmas on which is the best value, belief orpreference that the entire group should follow considering theexistence of numerous values from individual members. In a companythat serves a global customer base, it is evident that not all theethical decisions that the company makes that will go down well withall the stakeholders.

There havebeen instances at Nestle UK Plc. where individuals have attempted toimpose their cultures or values upon others. According to thepolicies of the company, every culture is equal to the other and allcultures must be equally valued and respected. For instance,employees who value performance as opposed to position have hadconflicts with the employees who value power and titles (Littrell &ampSalas, 2007). Equally, employees who strive to achieve groupperformance and goals face cultural dilemmas when working withindividualistic employees.

There havebeen significant examples of ethical dilemmas that have faced thecompany with regard to the culture of the outside world, as well asthat of the International Labor Organization and UNICEF. Unfair laborpractices has been one of the major dilemmas in the history of NestleUK. It was accused of being one of the major buyers of cocoa fromIvory Coast where the workers, as well as the farmers from thesefarms were known to be living in deplorable conditions (Nestle,2014). It was revealed that the workers were exploited and paidminimal wages by their employers. Additionally, most of the peoplewho worked in these cocoa fields were children who were traffickedfrom neighboring countries such as Mali and Burkina Faso. It wasclear that Nestle UK through purchasing cocoa from such farms andbeing aware of the conditions of the laborers, was a significantparty in the exploitation. This was a management decision at thecompany to purchase the cocoa, which was contrary to the culture ofthe other stakeholders.

5.4 Application of culturaldimensional theory

Culturaldimensional theories are aimed at assisting managers of multinationalorganizations to manage the different cultural values, beliefs andpreferences that are prevalent in their organizations for the benefitof both the organization, as well as the people it serves (Bhawuk, &ampBrislin.2010). Considering the various cultural dimensions identifiedat Nestle UK Plc., it is prudent to apply the elements of culturaldimension theory and find out how the company manages to work withthe numerous employees from different ethnic and cultural backgroundsall across the world (Parekh, 2000). In Nestle UK Plc., it was foundout that there are employees who work as a group and there are otherswho work individually. Additionally, there are some employees whoinsist on the value of the family while others are opposed to asimilar notion. These are cultural differences which are exhibited bythe various employees of the company.

Hofstede`scultural dimensions theory is one of the most significant culturaldimensions theory. It is a theory that is used both in psychology andalso by managers of international organizations that deal people fromdifferent cultural backgrounds. This is a theory that was developedin 1980 by Geert Hofstede and it helps explain the differences inbehavior by people from different cultures (Syed &amp Özbilgin,2010). The theory has set aside a number of cultural dimensions thatare essential in the analysis of varying behaviors within across-cultural context. The dimensions presented by the theory pointout various aspect where there are notable differences in behavior inmulticultural context. It is worth noting that the various dimensionsidentified at Nestle UK Plc. are well represented by the theory(Thomas, 2008). It is evident that there were notable differences inbehavior of the employees at Nestle UK Plc. This theory by GeertHofstede will help figure out the differences and also point out anypotential conflicts that are likely to arise.

The mainaim of the theory is to help people working in multicultural contextsto understand the elements of other cultures other than their own (DeBono, 2011). This is an extremely important aspect as it allows suchworkplaces where different cultural background individuals interactto be peaceful. The understanding of other cultures is extremelyimportant as it avoids any form of misunderstandings amongstemployees from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. At NestleUK Plc. this is a theory that would be of significant importance.Thecompany is not only set up in a country that is prevalent withmulticulturalism, but also employs people from any culture based uponqualification (Malik, 2002). This provides a huge challenge ofensuring that the different people work together harmoniously. Theremust be respect for other cultures and an understanding ofthecultural values in order to have a successful working relationshipwhich can yield the expected results, as well as realizeorganizational goals.

Thistheory highlights five primary cultural dimensions, which GeertHofstede argues that are the basis upon which different behaviors bydifferent employees are rooted. To start with, the theory points outsto the dimension of Individualism vs. collectivism. These weredimensions that were found to be existent within Nestle UK Plc.(Shakhray, 2009). It prudent for the management and the employees tounderstand that there are people amongst them who may subscribe tothe dimension of individualism, while others will subscribe to thecultural dimension of collectivism. This will be extremely vital inavoiding misunderstandings amongst the employees of the company.

Uncertaintyavoidance is another dimension that the theory point out. Nestle UKPlc., just like any other company has employees who portray keydifferences when preparing for future activities, being punctual orfollowing the set rules and guidelines. It is relevant to understandsuch cultural differences amongst the employees and put the necessarystrategies in place to avoid misunderstandings. The dimension ofMasculinity vs. (Shen, et al., 2009) femininity is a major culturaldimension. Naturally, males and females are associated with differentcultural values and preferences. For instance, females are known tobe emotional while males are associated with the values and beliefsof power and ambition. Since Nestle UK Plc. boasts of both male andfemale employee in the legally set proportions, it is evident thatthere will be differences in values and preferences (Thomas, 2008).In order to avoid any misunderstandings or conflict of culturalbeliefs and preferences, it is vital for the management to ensurethat the right strategies are put in place to cater for the needs ofboth genders. For instance, female employees must be shown modestyand care.

Powerdistance is another cultural dimension that this theory focuses on.The tolerance to the inequality of power at Nestle UK Plc. isdifferent for different individuals. People in high and lower powerdistances have portrayed varying attitudes towards their superiors(Thyer, 2010). It is essential to understand this power distancedimension in order to understand the behaviors of some employeestowards their superiors. Lastly, the long term orientation dimensionof culture versus the short term orientation may help to explain tothe management and the staff of Nestle UK Plc. why some of theemployees behave in certain ways. For instance, individuals who havea long term orientation are more enthusiastic about long termemployment contracts as oppose to people who may have a short termorientation (Parvis, 2005). This is an extremely helpful dimension toNestle UK Plc. while it is managing and organization the employeesand assigning them duties.

5.5 Importance of culturaldiversity in Nestle UK Plc.

Nestleis a global company and therefore the value of cultural diversitycannot be underestimated. Cultural diversity is an element thatensures that the company serves people with respect and dignityregardless of their cultural backgrounds. The company is totallyaware of the values of cultural diversity and has embarked onnumerous approaches, which would ensure that there is culturaldiversity within the company (Nestlé, 2003). It is worth statingthat the cultural diversity looks into various aspects besides raceand ethnicity. Cultural diversity encompasses the acceptance andvaluing people of different ages, countries, gender, physical andemotional status, religion, as well as political affiliations (Abott,2011). The importance of cultural diversity at Nestle UK Plc. is notonly to the company in terms of productivity, but also to thecustomers and the employees of the company who are able to learn fromtheir colleagues.

To startwith, cultural diversity brings together employees from diversecultural backgrounds and this enhances respect amongst the employees.Cultural diversity creates an interactive environment at Nestle UKPlc. (Nestle, 2014). Where employees gain respect for each other, aswell as each other’s cultural values and preferences. It is clearthat the performance of the Nestle UK Plc. employees is as a resultof the different strengths and talents that people from differentcultures bring along. Employees are able to accord their colleaguesrespect for their performances. The respect for each other at thecompany has ensured that there are reduced case of workplaceconflicts resulting from cultural differences (Lewis, 2005). It isworth noting that despite the cultural difference amongst the NestleUK Plc. employees, they have a common goal, which is achievingproductivity and quality.

Culturaldiversity at Nestle UK Plc.is essentially important for the company’sreputation both within the company and to the outside world. It isevident that the company has embarked on various ambitious andadmirable measures to enhance diversity. For instance, the companyseeks to train young people and help them acquire gainful employment(Adler, &amp Gundersen, 2008). This is a clear indication that thecompany is highly committed to diversity. Nestle UK Plc. has beenidentified as a socially responsible company globally and thereforeit attracts customers who mindful of social responsibility. The highsales associated with Nestle UK Plc. can largely be attributed to thecompany’s diversity in its workforce.

Culturaldiversity at the workplace enables employees from varying culturalbackgrounds to interact and learn from each other. It is clear thatthe different employees at Nestle UK Plc. exhibit different workstyles and attitudes of work (Baumuller, 2007). As a result,employees have had an opportunity to learn new work styles from theircolleagues at the workplace. For instance, the old employees at thecompany learn new technology processes from the young employees whoare more familiar with technology than them. Equally, the newemployees and the young employees are able to learn work ethics fromthe old and the experienced workers in the company.

It isclear that cultural diversity is prevalent at Nestle UK Plc. This hasenabled the company to attract very competitive employees from acrossthe world. The display of cultural diversity by the company enablesit to sell to the most qualified employees across the world. Thecompany is viewed as an equal opportunity employer by the potentialemployees (Chee, &amp Harris (2007). The company is viewed as beingopen to the exploration of new ideas and therefore appeals to theopen minded employees of the current generation. Nestle UK Plc.focuses on what an individual can bring to the company besides theirethnicity, religion, age or gender.

Researchhas indicated that the composition of a workforce in accompany willdetermine the success of such a workforce and the company byextension. Employees from different cultures at Nestle UK Plc. areresponsible for bringing in different opinions and perspectives tothe various issues facing the company and thereby propose alternativesolutions (Ancona, &amp Caldwell, 2012). Cultural diversity at thecompany enables a mix of capabilities and therefore skills, which areessential for productivity and ultimate success of the company.

Lastly,Nestle UK Plc. cultural diversity culture has ensured that thecompany has the schedule advantage. In other words, it is clear thatdifferent people have different commitments at various times. Thediversity at the workplace in Nestle UK Plc. enables the company tooperate at all times of the year (Leininger, 2006). An example ofthis schedule advantage is where workers from different religiousbackgrounds celebrate their festivals at different times. At NestleUK Plc., cultural diversity ensures that tasks are handledeffectively despite having some employees with unique timecommitments.

5.6 Benefits of cross culturaldiversity in Nestle UK Plc.

As many business migrate tothe global environment of business operations and customer base,cultural diversity is becoming increasing beneficial. Manyorganizations have realized the numerous organizational advantagesthat come along with cultural diversity (Kochan, et al., 2007).Research has indicated that organizations benefit both socially andeconomically from cultural diversity. Nestle UK Plc. has realizedthat cultural diversity is more about the similarities that peoplehave rather than differences (Dersso, 2012). It is evident thatmajority of the people have personal goals and aspirations. Nestle UKPlc. transfers these goals and aspirations to the organizationplatform and they act as a source of strength for the company’sproductivity and growth. This is due to the various experiences thatemployees from different cultures bring to the company. Since NestleUK Plc. has embraced diversity, it is able to naturally realize thebenefits of diversity to the company.

The company has benefittedgreatly in terms of creativity and innovation. The company’sworkforce comprises of people from different backgrounds and thesepeople bring along varying experiences and it is evident that theremust be a difference. The differences are responsible for opening upnew possibilities exhibited in form of innovation and creativity. Thenumerous products such as KitKat are as a result of the innovativeideas of diverse workforce.

Additionally, the chocolatebars meant for the young generation (millennial age) of 20 to 26years are as a result of innovation and creativity from the diverseworkforce (Kent, 2006). It is worth noting that these new ideastranslate to high sales and ultimately financially benefiting thecompany.

Cross cultural diversity atNestle UK Plc. has been a major cost cutting tool. This is achievedthrough reduced cases of absenteeism, employee turnover as well asfew lawsuits regarding discrimination. It is worth noting thatcultural diversity at the workplace enables the recognition of everyemployee’s efforts and contribution (Grillo, 2009). This is one wayof ensuring employee job satisfaction and therefore reducingabsenteeism and turnover. In a diverse workforce, Nestle UK Plc. hasbenefited in that the tasks are hardly left unattended to. This isbecause diverse nature of the workforce only allows a few employeesto have personal unique time commitments such as religious festivals.

The customer base of NestleUK Plc. is a reflection of the diverse cultures that are found withinthe company. Research has indicated that majority of customers willdo business with organizations which seem to reflect them. Thediversity of the employees at Nestle UK Plc. has enabled the companyto attract a global customer base (UNESCO. 2009). Additionally, thediverse cultures of the employees at the company has enabled thecompany to effectively interact with the customers and handle theirproblems and concerns extremely well. It is worth noting that some ofthe employees are from the cultures that some of the customers belongto. Therefore, such employees will be in a better position tounderstand the needs of such customers on the behalf of the company(Usunier, &amp LEE, 2009). This huge customer base has enabled thecompany to make immense profits and record successful financialgrowth over the years.

Cross cultural diversity atNestle UK Plc. is essential for the creation of strong globalrelationships. Customer relationships and partnerships forged toenhance business are normally augmented by diversity. It is clearlyevident that when engaging in business at an international level,there are opportunities of experiencing new values, beliefs andbusiness preferences from other cultures. With a diverse workforce,Nestle UK Plc. has managed to learn how to operate internationalbusiness. This is because the diverse workforce interacts with at aglobal level with partners and customers. Additionally, research atNestle UK Plc. has found out that diversity at the workplace is agreat source of inspiration and motivation to the employees (Walton,2008). Diversity at the company has been credited with the financialgrowth due to innovation, as well as effective problem solvingtechniques. Innovation and problem solving skills are essentialelements which translate to an enormous advantage in the marketplace.

While Nestle UK Plc.considers investing heavily on marketing and technology, it is worthfor the company to also consider investing in diversity initiatives.This study has found out that the company has made tremendous stridesin enhancing diversity at the workplace, as well protecting thevalues, beliefs and preferences of every culture across the world(Wales, et al., 2010). The presence of a diverse workforce at thecompany clearly sends the signal that the company is a global entitywhich seeks to serve a global customer base. It is also clearlyevident that the company values and embraces every culture across theworld.

5.7 The role cross culturaldiversity plays in Nestle UK Plc.

Cross culturaldiversity is an extremely essential element at Nestle UK Plc. crosscultural diversity ensures that there is mutual respect betweenemployees from different cultural backgrounds (Leung, &amp Stephan.2010). Cultural diversity also ensures that employees from anycultural background are employed based on merit rather theirethnicity, religion, gender, age or country of origin. In thisregard, it is evidently clear that cultural diversity plays a numberof roles in the company.

Cross cultural diversity atthe organization has ensured that there is mutual respect and valuefor every culture. The company has set out various policies and lawsthat call for every culture to respect other cultures. It is alsoclear that the rules and laws ensure that there is no culture whichseems superior to the others. In other words, the company’sdiversity laws recognize, respect, value and recognize the beliefsand preferences of every culture. This has been an extremely vitalrole in that it ensures that every employee feels appreciated andrecognized and therefore creating a peaceful working environment(Mor-barak, 2011). This job satisfaction has resulted in low employeeturnover and absenteeism hence productivity. Therefore, it can beauthoritatively be concluded that cross cultural diversity at thecompany has brought together various cultures and facilitated anunderstanding of the different cultural values.

Secondly, cross culturaldiversity plays the role of providing employment opportunities toeverybody based on merit as opposed to ethnicity, religion, race,gender or country of origin. Cross cultural diversity at Nestle UKPlc. has attracted numerous qualified employees from across the world(Mor-barak, 2014). These employees are from diverse cultures and fromdifferent countries. This has also enabled the interaction of peoplefrom various cultural backgrounds. As a result, people have been ableto learn different cultures and appreciate what other people do andwhy they behave in certain manners.

Communication and languageare two essential elements of any successful business. The companyunder study has embraced cross cultural diversity in globalperspective way. Whereas the different employees in the company maybe speaking different languages, the appreciation they receiveensures that they learn a common language for communication such asEnglish. Additionally, diversity enables proper communication withclients in instances where there might be language barriers(Erlenkamp, 2007). Employees from China will be in a position toeffectively communicate with customers from China on behalf of thecompany in a language that the customer will effectively understand.

Cross cultural diversity atthe company also plays the role of creating and maintaining arelatively high market share of the company’s products. Asdiscussed earlier, diversity at the company has helped the company togain a global outlook and therefore attracting customers from allover the world. Therefore, cultural diversity at the company does notonly enhance intercultural relations, but also earns the companyincome through sales(Rogers,&amp Steinfatt, 2009). The goodreputation that the company has worldwide can largely be attributedto the diverse workforce and the measures put in place by the companyto enhance multiculturalism. The roles and benefits of a goodreputation of a company cannot be underestimated.

It is evident that there arespecific legal requirements in many countries across the world withregard to diversity. For instance, UK laws demand that women must begiven at least a third of the management posts in a company. It isalso evident that some countries such the US require that people withdisabilities be included in the management teams of companies(Berger,&amp Huntington, 2002). Cross cultural diversity at NestleUK has ensured that the company meets the legally set requirementswith regard to diversity. It is also a requirement by law thatcompanies with multicultural workforce contexts adhere to theprinciples of mutual respect and value for different cultures.Nestlé’s cross-cultural diversity nature has played the essentialrole of ensuring that such legal requirements are adhered to.

5.8 Implications of mismanagingcultural diversity among members of staff at Nestle UK Plc.

Whereas well managementcultural diversity has been seen to have numerous advantages andbenefits to the company, it is worth stating that a slight lapse inthe management may have dire consequences both to the employees andthe company as a whole. Cultural diversity brings in differentaspects, values and beliefs to the company (Bhattacharyya, 2010). Ifthe management of Nestle UK Plc. fails to effectively manage thesedifferences, there are bound to be serious implications.

Mismanagement of culturaldiversity would mean that some employees are valued more than other.While such employees are realize they are more valued than others,they tend to take advantage over their colleagues and belittle them(Bennett, 2001). The less valued employees end to be less productiveand innovative. This is contrary to the valued employees who willwork hard and come up with innovations for the company. This is anextremely risky situation in the company since productivity willsignificantly reduce, as well as company profits.

Mismanagement of culturaldiversity will mean that promotions and other favors within companywill be based on cultural aspects such as age, gender, skin color,religion or race as opposed to merit. This will result to the companyhiring unqualified people who cannot deliver the company’s mandatead objectives (Jackson, 2012). This will also have the effect oflimiting talent and productivity of extremely qualified employeesdeserving promotions. This will also affect the company’s globalimage and destroy its reputation. As discussed above, the image andthe reputation of the company is in the diverse workforce that itpossesses (De Bono, 2011). As a result, the company willsignificantly lose customers and destroy the partnerships it has withstakeholders. The global image of the company will be lost as aresult of the mismanagement of cultural diversity.

As mentioned earlier, thereare various legal requirements with regard to diversity at theworkplace in the UK. Therefore, any form of mismanagement of culturaldiversity at the company would result in legal suits (Montes, 2000).It is clear that the legal suits would attract heavy costs to thecompany in terms of legal fees and time. Employees are bound tocomplain to the authorities when they are mistreated anddiscriminated upon at the workplace. For instance, imbalances ofgender employees may force civil rights groups to sue the company onbehalf of the company.

Mismanagement of culturaldiversity at Nestle UK will would also affect the value of somecultural groups. Mismanagement would mean that races, ethnic groupsor religions would be discriminated upon. This would have theimplication of belittling and devaluing some cultures. As aconsequence, there would be a loss of productivity and employeeparticipation in the company’s activities (Pitts, et al., 2010).The reputation of the company would also be extremely destroyedacross the sections where the minority belittled people emanate from.

In a workplace where someemployees are favored more than others, there is bound to beconflicts are each employee tries to market their culturalpreferences and values. Such conflicts are detrimental to theperformance and productivity of employees at the company. It is alsoevident that the management will have to set aside time and resourcesto resolve such conflicts. Lastly, mismanagement of culturaldiversity would result to high levels of absenteeism and turnover(Wierzbicka, 2005). This is because employees who feel that they arenot treated with respect and dignity, they will tend to seekemployment elsewhere. Additionally, employee turnover is bound to behigh as mistreated employees seek employment elsewhere.

These implications comprisethe past and the future. For instance, absenteeism and employeeturnover is one of the present implication of mismanagement ofcultural diversity. Conflicts at the workplace as a result ofcultural differences can be categorized as current effects ofmismanagement of cultural diversity. Whereas legal suits pertainingto diversity at the workplace may occur now, it is also prudent tostate that such legal suits can also occur in the future (Universityof Michigan. 2005). Employee turnover can also be a future ofimplication of mismanaging cultural diversity. The loss of customersand global reputation to the company will be one of the futureimplications that the company will face. It is clear that the globalcustomer base that the company enjoys would fizzle out over time as aresult of poor policies for managing diversity within and outside thecompany.

5.9 Effects of cultural diversityon the overall operations of Nestle UK Plc.

He effects that culturaldiversity has on the operations of the company under study cannot beunderestimated. Numerous decisions that the company makes areinfluenced by the cultural diversity that exists within the company(Torres, 2012). The existence of the company’s products across theworld is one of the primary effects of cultural diversity. Thecompany has been able to identify with various cultures across theworld and therefore earn customers in many areas of the world.

The company has also beenable to come up with laws and strategies which are aimed at enhancingdiversity at the workplace. For instance, the trainings to the youngpeople that the company offers are a way of ensuring that such peoplefind gainful employment (Morris, &amp Robie, 2009). The company hasalso ensured that minority groups are included in the management andrunning of the company. It is notable that the CEO of the company, asit was mentioned earlier, is a woman. Cultural diversity has alsomade the company to adopt training programs, which are meant toenlighten the employees on the need to respect and value differentcultures exhibited in the company by different employees.

Cultural diversity at NestleUK Plc. has also given the company an excellent global representationand reputation. The products of the company have been accepted worldover. As a result, the company has had to operate as a globalcompany. This is because operations especially in supplies, mustreach a global customer base (Mcdonal, et al., 2002). Therefore, thecompany works with people and partners from across the world. This isthe reason why the company has adopted the slogan, “think globally,and act locally”. This is meant to testify the global existence ofNestle UK Plc.

5.10 Impact of cultural diversityon teamwork

At Nestle UK Plc.every employee must work hand in hand with other employees regardlessof the cultural backgrounds they subscribe to. The company has beenvocal in advocating for respect for all cultures within the company(Karsten, 2006). As a result, employees are encouraged to worktogether as a team as they learn each other’s cultural values andpreferences. Employees at the company have been able to effectivelyadopt each other’s values and beliefs and this has enhancedteamwork (Stackhouse, 2007). It is also vital to state that differentmembers in a team are bound to bring varying viewpoints and opinions,which are vital for the success of a team. Teams are able to findalternative solutions to the problems that might present. In thisregard, it is abundantly clear that the various cultures representedare able to bring out vital skills and knowledge to the group.

Considering the divergentviews and opinions that a multicultural team might have, it isevident that teams at Nestle UK Plc. are able to come up withsolutions to problems easily(Wiseman, et al., 2011). It is also worthnoting that such groups are in a position to acquire tremendoussuccess as they have done at Nestle UK Plc.

However, diversity is not apanacea to teamwork. There are various shortcomings associated withdiversity when teams are involved. For instance, communication mightbe a major barrier in teams comprising of people from differentcultural backgrounds and this may largely affect the performance ofthe team and the subsequent failure to achieve organizational goals(Lambert,&amp Myers, (2000). It was also found out thatmulticulturalism in groups resulted in misunderstandings andarguments due to the divergent views given by the various member.This may be due to factors such as age differences. Lastly,management of multicultural teams was found out to be extremelydifficult and enormous wisdom and management skills were required toensure the group remained coherent.

5.11 Impact of cultural diversityon leadership

The leadership ofNestle UK Plc. has been forced to work together with cultures fromall parts of the world. Whereas the leaders of the company may befrom different cultural backgrounds with the junior employees, theyhave the responsibility of ensuring that every culture’s values andbeliefs are guarded (Lum,&amp Tehranian, 2006). The leadership ofthe company has also been made to adopt diversity policies thatenhance cohesion and understanding between the employees and theother stakeholders in the company.

Leaders of the company havebeen made to learn the needs of the various cultures. For instance,the management of the company has had to learn the various emotionalneeds of women (Chryssochoou, 2004). The leaders have also changeddrastically with regard to the way they handle the employees at thecompany. Cultural diversity has enabled them to understand fully, thebehaviors that are exhibited by employees. As a result, the leadersare able to device effective intervention measures to curb anyunacceptable behavior without belittling or mistreating theindividuals involved.

5.12 Impact of cultural diversityon finance and productivity

Cultural diversityplays a pivotal role in the productivity and finance aspects ofNestle UK Plc. cultural diversity provides a conducive environmentfor every employee to offer their skills and abilities for thebenefit of the company (Borelli, &amp Lenzerini, 2012). When thereis mutual respect and every employee realizes that his or her effortsare well recognized and respect, they are bound to be creative,innovative and hardworking. This enhances productivity at Nestle UKPlc.

As it was discussed earlier,cultural diversity brings along divergent opinions, views andsolutions to various problems. This has the implication of enhancedproductivity in the company. Employees are able to come up with therelevant solutions and for various productivity problems (CICP.2007). Cultural diversity has also given Nestle UK Plc. a goodreputation across the world and therefore gaining numerous customers.As a result, production levels has had to go up tocater for the newemerging global market for the company’s products.

The direct implication ofenhanced productivity is increased revenue. This is the same case atNestle UK Plc. The company has gained enormously in terms of financesas a result of the enhanced productivity and the enlarged market(Jackson, et al., 2003).However, the company has also incurred costswhile training employees on the various elements of culturaldiversity at the company.

This chapter has deeplydiscussed the findings of this research. The management of culturaldiversity and nestle UK. Plc. has been widely discussed in thischapter. Te next chapter is the conclusion of the researchhighlighting the main points of the entire research paper.

Chapter six

  1. Conclusion

Cultural diversity is oneaspect that must be embraced by all companies, whether they are localor multinationals. This research has found out that globalizationhasenabled different people from all cultural backgrounds to seekgreener pastures in any part of the world. As a result, manydeveloped countries comprise of people from numerous cultures acrossthe world. Companies must accept this development of multiculturalismand embrace it in order to remain relevant. Nestle UK Plc. is onesuch company that has embraced and benefited immensely from culturaldiversity. Whereas cultural diversity may have some shortcomings,this study has clearly indicated that diversity is more beneficial toa company than it is harmful. The global image and the reputationthat Nestle UK Plc. has had is as a result of its role in enhancingand embracing cultural diversity.

It is paramount for Nestle UKPlc. to continue with its cultural diversity form as this willcontinue to earn the company extensive markets across the world andtherefore increase profitability. A majority of the multinationalcompanies have managed to earn worldwide customer base due to theircultural diversity principles and laws. Cultural diversity at theworkplace is no longer a choice, but a requirement for manycompanies. There have been various legal standards that have been setwith regard to cultural diversity. Respect for the different culturalvalues is a significant element in the achievement of a company’sgoals. This research has indicated that there is no single culturethat should be valued more than the other.

Nestle UK Plc. has been oneof the companies that has embraced cultural diversity. The companyhas ensured that it has employed people from both the majoritycultures and the minority groups. For instance, the company has shownclearly that it vales women by a having a CEO who is a woman. Theworkforce is also comprised of numerous young people, as well as theold people. The fact that the company is extremely strict on mattersto do with diversity and respect for each other is a clear indicationthat diversity at the company is crucial.

The benefits of culturaldiversity have clearly been seen through this research. It is clearthat cultural diversity does not only help avoid conflicts andmisunderstandings amongst employees, but also earns the companycustomers. The global image that the employees of the company createhelps the company to earn customers from across the world. Thisresearch has indicated that the customers feel as being part of thecompany. The ability to avoid law suits with regard to violation ofcultural diversity requirements, reduces the involved costssignificantly. Additionally, the company gains immensely from thedivergent views and opinions that the employees provide. Lastly, itis also a learning opportunity for the employees to learn newcultural values and preferences from their colleagues. However, thisresearch has indicated for Nestle UK Plc. to achieve the statedbenefits, it had to effectively manage cultural diversity at thecompany. A small lapse in the management of cultural diversity mayhave dire consequences on the performance and morale of employees, aswell as the production levels and profits for the company.

6.1 Recommendations

According to this research,there are certain areas and elements that the company and thegovernment and improve in order to benefit immensely from the diversecultural contexts present at the company. To start with, the companymust embark on more measures to include the disabled in theirworkforce. The less than 1% of disabled employees at the company isinsufficient. The training that the company offers to the youngpeople should be followed by employment opportunities for them at thecompany. This would show an extremely positive role towards enhancingcultural diversity.

The company should alsodevelop measures to be taken against employees who fail to showregard and respect for other cultures at the workplace. In addition,the company should consider coming up with a formula that woulddictate the percentages of different cultures at the workplace. Themanagement must lead from the front by incorporating the variouscultural values in their workforce. The government must also come upwith extremely strict measures for dealing with companies that do notadhere to diversity rules at the workplace.

Cultural days were found tobe very few within the company. According to the employees whoparticipated in the research study, cultural days should be madefrequent and common. Employees cited having learnt a lot from the fewcultural days organized by the company. Therefore, it is recommendedthat the company organizes numerous cultural days. Additionally, itis recommended that the company develops complaints procedures thatare confidential for employees who feel aggrieved or discriminateupon due to their cultural backgrounds.

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Appendix 1 Questionnaires

The following are some of thesemi-structured questions that were asked to the participants itworth noting that the interviewees were selected randomly and werefrom all cultural backgrounds. In other words, the intervieweesincluded women, men, whites, Asians, blacks, young, old and thedisabled.

The objective of the followingquestions is to find out how Nestle UK Plc. manages culturaldiversity at the company. Mark the answers or write in the spacesprovided. Feel free to answer all the questions since they arevoluntary.

  1. What is your gender?

Male

Female

  1. How old are you?

Lessthan 20

20-30

30-40

40-50

50-60

60and above

  1. Indicate the racial or ethnic group you belong to. If you are multiracial, kindly identify the two races or ethnic groups you identify with.

AfricanAmerican/Black

AmericanIndian/Alaskan Native

Asian/PacificIslander

Hispanic/Latino

MiddleEastern

WhiteCaucasian

Other.(Please Specify):

  1. What is your country of origin

………………………….

  1. Is your culture well represented and respected at the work place

Yes

No

  1. Do you feel discriminated because of your cultural background at the workplace

Yes

No

  1. Do you learn any values from other cultures at the work place

Yes

No

  1. Are you comfortable at the workplace (if no, what makes you uncomfortable)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Are you satisfied with the cultural representation of the Nestle UK workforce?

Yes

No

  1. Please state what measures the company should take to enhance cultural diversity at the workplace……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  2. Would you be interested in a cultural day organized by the company?

Definitelynot

Notreally

May

Definitely

Ethics application form

Thisapplication form must be completed by all Newham University Centrestaff and students conducting research which involves the gatheringand processing of primary data concerning human participants, for alldissertation students (whether or not they are collecting primarydata), and where the outcomes will be disseminated beyond theindividual who originally collected or processed the information.Pleaseensure you delete the comment boxes when complete(rightclick on the box and left click“delete comment”).

SECTIONONE: GENERAL

1.Applicant (Allcorrespondence will be sent to this address unless otherwise stated)

Full FAVOUR AWELE OBI

PostalAdd: 65 TUSCANY CORTE,71 LOAMPIT VALE, LONDON.SE13 7FP.

Emailaddress: [email protected]

ContactTelephone Number: 07534863686

Affiliation(please tick): NCUCStaff

NCUCStudent (fill out details below)

Student 25161625

Nameof Programme: Business and Management

Levelof Study: Level 6

2.Titleof research project: Managing Cultural Diversity inNestle UK PLC.

.

3.Startand end dates of research project: 01/07/14-06/01/15

4.Details(amount and source) of any financial support: None

5.Other researchers involved, together with role: Mr.Francis Adeji.

SECTION2: DETAILS OF PROJECT

Supportingdocumentation should be attached where detailed below.

6.Aims and research questions of the project:

1.What is Cultural Diversity

    1. Definition

    2. Meaning in context

2.How can cultural diversity be identified in Nestle UK Plc.

1.1 Identification of the cultural dimensions and dilemma’s in Nestle UK Plc.

1.2 Application of the identified cultural dimensional theories to the chosen case study

3.What are the importance and benefits of cultural diversity in Nestle UK Plc.

1.1 Benefits of cross cultural diversity in Nestle UK Plc.

1.2 Therole cross cultural diversity plays in Nestle UK Plc.

4.What are the likely implications of mismanaging cultural diversity in Nestle UK Plc.

1.1 Implications of mismanaging cultural differences among the members of staff of Nestle UK Plc.: past, present and future implications

5.How does cultural diversity affect Nestle UK Plc.

1.1 Its impact on the overall operations of Nestle UK Plc.

1.2 Its impact on teamwork, leadership, finance, operations, productivity, etc.

Other areas that will belooked at in the project are: The advantages and disadvantages ofcultural diversity in a large and multi-cultural organization likeNestle UK Plc., steps required by management of the organization totackle the current complexities associated with managing amulticultural workforce and leading them towards attaining theoverall corporate aims and objectives of the organization whilstrecommending strategies that will help the organization manage itsmulticultural and diversified workforce in the future.

7.Background of research project: Research Questions: Nestle Plc. is known all over the world. It is the world’slargest food company, and among the world`s 40 largest corporations.Nestle Plc. has approximately 280,000 employees worldwide and theyhave factories or operations in almost every country in the world. Nestle Plc. is truly an international corporation in all itsramifications. (Nestle Plc. website, 2014)

“Despite the organizationsglobal reach, what distinguishes Nestle Plc. from other corporateentities, is the fact that each of their national companies maintainsthe flexibility to make their own decisions in such a way that bestmeet the needs of their own people and local communities. Each regionhas the liberty to choose to sell brands that satisfy their ownunique consumer’s needs, while at the same time,

As part of the largerorganization, all the various sub companies benefit from access toglobal resources owned by Nestle”. (Nestle Plc. Official Website,2014) However this study is limited to Nestle UK and the issuesresearched into are solely narrowed to the operations and orcorporate entity of Nestle in the United Kingdom but this does notstop other interested researchers and or Nestle branches on a widerscale from applying some of the findings to their own operationsoutside the UK. The reason why Nestle UK was chosen for this researchis predominantly driven by the fact that the UK remains one of theworld’s most cultural diversified society.

8.Brief outline of project and study method:The primary aim of this research is to prepare a researchwork that will serve as a manual for Nestle Plc. in the UnitedKingdom, in managing cultural diversity within the framework of theorganization.

This dissertation willcritically analyses and evaluate with tangible facts anddocumentations, the importance of managing cultural diversity inNestle UK Plc., in such a way that every minute cultural element inthe ranks of the organizations will be carried along withoutnegligence to the individualistic cultural trait that is peculiarwith the individual or group of individuals which to a great extentinterferes with productivity and the day to day operations within theorganization.

My preliminary study intocultural diversity in relation to Nestle UK, shows that themismanagement of cultural diversity has led to several clash ofcultures among the members of staff and even the top management ofthe organization which has a direct negative impact on thesuper-structure of the firm as sales, teamwork, productivity etc.,are direct recipients of this harsh mismanagement and negligence ofthe cultural realities within the organization. Cultural diversity ifmanaged properly, can lead to wealth creation and if managed poorlyas has been the case in many multi-cultural and multinationalorganizations, can be the surest way to the demise of suchorganizations (Hoecklin, 1995).With the findings in this researchwork, the economic, political and social structures of Nestle UK Plc.can be sustained if cultural diversity is adequately identified andmanaged in the day to day operations of the organization.

The work will concentrate onthe application of these findings in real time in a very simplisticand realistic method to benefit the wider society

Also, the researchers willanalyze and assess the overall benefit that Nestle UK Plc., willderive from the analysis contained therein. The scope and focus ofthe research paper will be limited to Nestle UK Plc., which is theresearcher’s case study and area of interest, but occasionally, theentire Nestle Plc. worldwide will be mentioned in certain aspects forthe sole purpose of adding value and benchmarking the strength of theresearcher’s analysis. This work will at the onset, outline thebackground and relevance of the researcher’s topic, whilst settingout to inform on the aims, research questions and objectives.Furthermore, the work will extensively review the literature thatwill be made use of in the research at this point, the dissertationwill explain the research design, the research methodology used inachieving the research aims, objectives and answers to the researchquestions. A review of relevant literature and the analysis andinterpretation of data collected will lead to the research’sconclusions and recommendations. Lastly, the researcher will attachedat the end of the research, the stating time frame for thedissertation, Funding requirements, Ethical issues and limitationsencountered while researchingfor data/information, also what theresearcher identified in the work/research.

Study Methodology:According to (Flick, 2011) the design of a research is the structureof any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes theresearch. The research design is the master plan of methods,approaches, techniques, variables, data source, evaluationmethodology, timing and costing of all research activities. Everyresearch design should have certain key components andcharacteristics that help the researcher in his/her attempt todeduct, locate, interpret and adequately analyses` data.

In this study, the descriptiveresearch will be employed and supported with the exploratory researchdesign. According to statistics and experts in the field of researchmethodology, these two types of research designs are more employed byresearchers and the reason for this is not far-fetched. In adescriptive research design, the researcher has multiple options tochoose from, in the sense that every descriptive research must eitherbe a qualitative research, a quantitative research or a triangulationand I will be embarking on a research that will require a combinationof both the qualitative and the quantitative research design foraccuracy of my findings and final recommendations.

SECTION 3: PARTICIPANTS

Pleaseattach copies of the following, together with any further supportingdocumentation, as indicated below. Please ensure these are copied onto the end of this document (in the appendix) and not submitted asseparate documents:

  • Participant information sheet outlining the nature of the research

  • Participant consent form

  • Questionnaires, or interview schedules

  • Summary of debriefing if appropriate

Pleaseindicate the age group of the participants that you will work withi.e. under 18, over 18. If fewer than 18 how will you gain permissionfor participants to take place.

Pleaseremember that if relevant supporting documents are not attached thenthe submission will be returned for completion. Also, please rememberthat all materials sent to potential participants must be on NUCheaded notepaper

9.Nature and number of participants

YES

NO

N / A

NCUC students

NCUC Staff

Newham College students (non HE)*

Newham College staff (non HE)

Members of the public

Clinical population*

People with mental health issues*

People in custody*

Children (under 18 years)*

People with learning or communication difficulties*

People engaged in illegal activities (e.g. drug-taking)*

Other (please specify):*

  • :

*if you have answered Yes to any of the starred items youshould tick Q.14 box Bto indicate that there may be ethical implications with possibleadditional legal procedures attached to them.

10.Inclusion and exclusion criteria: None

11.Recruitment of participants:In person

12.Consent and care of participants

YES

NO

N / A

a

Will you describe the main procedures to participants in advance so that they are informed about what to expect in your study?

b

Will you tell participants that their participation is voluntary?

c

Will you obtain written informed consent for participation?

d

If the research is observational (including tape and video), will you ask participants for their consent to being observed?

e

Will you tell participants that they may withdraw from the research at any time without penalty and for any reason?

f

If using questionnaires or interviews, will you give participants the option of omitting questions they do not want to answer without penalty?

g

Will confidentiality be agreed (i.e. that participants will not be identifiable in any records, presentations or reports (oral or written) of the research)?

h

Will you tell participants that their data will be treated with full confidentiality and that, if published, it will not be identifiable as theirs?

i

Will you give participants a brief explanation of the purpose of the study at the end of their participation in it, and answer any questions?

j

Will any payment or reward be made to participants, beyond reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses?

k

Will your project involve deliberately misleading participants in any way?

l

Is the information gathered from participants of a sensitive or personal nature?

m

Is there any realistic risk of any participants experiencing either physical or psychological distress or discomfort?

NB:

1)if you have answered “no” to questions a – i, please tickbox Q.14 box B to indicatethat there may be ethical implications. These issues should beincorporated in your Participant Information sheet (e.g. you shouldstate that “you are free to withdraw from the study at any timewithout penalty”).

2)if you have answered “yes” to j, k, l or m above, pleaseprovide details below(continue on a separate sheet if necessary), and state what you willadvise participants to do if they should experience any problems(e.g. whom they can contact for help). This should also appear in theParticipant Information Sheet.

(AdditionalInformation)

SECTION 4: DECLARATION

13. I request ethical approval for the research described in thisapplication. I havereadNewham University Centre’s research ethics policy, and those ofrelevant professional bodies (e.g. BPS, BCAP) and agree to abide bythese.

14.Ethical implications:

A

I consider that this project has no significant ethical implications to be brought before the Ethics Committee.

B

I consider that this project may have ethical implications to be brought before the Ethics Committee and /or it will be carried out with children or vulnerable populations.

SignedF.A. Obi__ 06/05/14

Printed FAVOUR AWELEOBI

Iam the manageror supervisor for this research. I have read thisapplication and approve it. I do not consider that any part of theresearch process willcause physical and/or psychological harm toparticipants, or be detrimental to the reputation of NewhamCollege/University Centre Stratford.

Signed__Date _

PrintedName __

SECTION5: OUTCOME (NO SIGNIFICANT ETHICAL ISSUES)Tobe signed by the Chair of the Research Ethics Committee: tick onebox.

I grant ethics approval for this research

I do not grant ethics approval for this research (provide rationale below)

provide rationale and advise amendments to the research

Signed__Date _

PrintedName _

Designation___

SECTION 6: OUTCOME (SIGNIFICANTETHICAL ISSUES)Tobe signed by the Chair of the Research Ethics Committee: tick onebox.

The Committee grants ethics approval for this research

The Committeedoes not grant ethics approval for this research

provide rationale and advise any amendments to the research

Signed__Date _

If you are a dissertation student then submit this form via Turnitin on the dissertation module page. If you are not, then email it to [email protected]

Please ensure that you have attached copies of all relevant supporting documents (where appropriate) as approval to proceed cannot be granted until these are received:

  • information sheet for participants

  • consent form for participants

  • debriefing information

  • any other supporting documents

PrintedName _

SECTION 6: APPENDIX

Pleasecopy and past all relevant supporting documentation here. E.g.

  • information sheet for participants

  • consent form for participants

  • debriefing information

  • any other supporting documents

69