Male Prostitution



  1. Scope of

  1. Services Provided in Online

  1. Online Venues for

  1. Reasons for Online

1.1Sexual Orientation1.2Race 1.3Online isSecure2Conclusion

Prostitution refers to the practice of indulging in sexualassociations for money or different gains. An individual working inthe field is a prostitute. Prostitution is amid the sexual industrybranches. Its legality differs depending on the country as there arenations that regulate, allow and others prohibit prostitution. Thepractice has been termed as one of the most ancient profession.Although largely associated with females, male prostitution is alsowidespread and a fast emerging field of research. Male prostitutioninvolves men exchanging sexual favors for money with fellow men, andin rare instances to women. Male prostitutes are recognized viaseveral names. These are hustlers, escorts, masseurs, rent-boysor models. Gay-for-pay is another phrase referring to amale that is not gay yet offers sexual favors to men customers forthe money. Male customers also have words to refer to like johnsor tricks. The development of the internet has made maleprostitution to progress thriving with minimal realization. There aremany reasons why males opt to seek and provide sexual favors online.Reasons range from sexual orientation and stigma associated with maleprostitution and race factors.

Scope of

The engagement in sexual conduct by males for monetary purposes aswell as gaining provision for different items like shelter and foodhas a wide scope (Flowers, 2011). Female prostitution seems to covera majority of the research areas on prostitution, yet maleprostitutions are as well rampant (Flowers, 2011). Most expertssuppose that the occurrence of prostitution-engaged males is large oreven larger compared to female prostitution. Considering that it isdifficult to track the figure of male prostitutes due to limitedvisibility and nature of the sexual behavior, it is possible thatmale prostitution progresses to become a rampant business daily(Flowers, 2011). The internet is the most preferred alternative formale prostitutes. This implies that the individuals are capable ofconcealing their sexual work. Thus, prostitutes may operate for yearson without ever been recognized. The difference in scope between maleand female prostitution is that lesser females opt for onlineprostitution. It is easier for females to meet clients in the streetsthan it is for males. Males would rather work in environments wherethey feel that potential clients will be able to contact them withouthaving to expose themselves as in females (Flowers, 2011).

A majority of approximations on male prostitution has concentratedon young individuals, particularly those that are underage. However,most prostitutes are above 18 years and consider their sexualactivity as work (Flowers, 2011). It is approximated that the figureof American male prostitutes is tens of thousands. The statisticsseem to be larger in bigger towns like San Francisco and New York(Flowers, 2011). Underage prostitutions are widespread in smalltowns. There is just restricted information on male prostitutesidentifying as bisexual, gay and transgender. This is because mostprostitutes falling under the category are reluctant to expose theirsexuality (Flowers, 2011).

Services Provided in Online

The services provided by male prostitutes are categorized asnon-sexual, sexual, physical as well as relational (Smith &amp Grov,2011). Sex work differs by the extent of physical contact and eroticengagement amid the prostitutes and customers. The male prostitutemight differentiate the sexual relations depending on the customer,individual likes and monetary needs. Physical services entailemploying the body for financial gains. It refers to the trading ofthe body regardless of is sexual action actually happens amid theclient and prostitute. As a result, dancing while nude, in additionto pornography, where the videos are sold online by male sex workersare regarded as types of male prostitution despite the seller andbuyer not engaging in direct sexual contact (Smith &amp Grov, 2011).The condition is erotic posing intrinsic value for individualsseeking such experiences. Although there is no direct interaction inthe case of physical male prostitution, the videos act as a kind ofsexualized content or conduct, which may result in sexualgratification for clients. The prostitutes benefit from the onlinesale of pornography, nude videos among other media targeting maleclients (Smith &amp Grov, 2011).

Male prostitutes’ services might also entail massage or bodywork.In many states, it is mandatory to have professional authorizationfor people to market their services as masseurs, which makes itimpossible for prostitutes to offer services in the form of massage(Smith &amp Grov, 2011). However, bodywork entails some kind oferoticization. Body workers that market their services online forcustomers often depict their work as massage, and fail to identifythemselves as professionals. In place of professional, the phrase‘experienced’ is employed to denote that the advertiser mighthave offered massages in a particular methods (Smith &amp Grov,2011). Another form of massage/ bodywork advertising involvesprostitutes identifying their services by outlining the methods usedin massages. Common in such online advertisements is the fact thatthey include erotic aspects in the marketing and services offered(Smith &amp Grov, 2011). Masseurs will classify their services asincluding the provision of ‘erotic’ massage to depict that theperson offering the massage also works on customer’s genitalia anddiverse erotic regions. The masseur may not also be dressed whenavailing massage to customers. Mutual touching is a phrase employedin showing that a customer might be free to touch the masseur (Smith&amp Grov, 2011). In erotic massages, the words ‘happy ending’depict the person offering massage will cause the customer to feelsexually satisfied. Hence, encounters with erotic bodywork may besexual or non-sexual (Smith &amp Grov, 2011). Frequently, maleprostitutes advertise as massage providers to avoid censorship by lawenforcers.

Most male prostitutes restrict their actions to those that seem lesspersonal or physical. Most males prefer sexual actions that arenon-sexual. However, due to the rise in homosexuality, there aremales that prefer the services offered to be full. Hence, someprostitutes advertise their services as ‘full service’ (Smith &ampGrov, 2011). This implies that they are open to indulging in sexualactions. Such ‘full services’ are mostly provided by escorts.Male prostitutes that are gay often regard themselves as ‘hookers’(Smith &amp Grov, 2011). This depicts a widespread undercurrent of agay society where males identify themselves with female gender roles,when referring to sexual conduct and dressing. Escorting entailsavailing relational services to customers concerning emotionalbacking. Escorts travel with their customers, go out together, spendnights and act as momentary boyfriends.

Online Venues for

Due to the extensive development of the internet during the 1990s,as well as the shift of males seeking sexual relations from fellowmales to chat rooms, online bulletin boards and different onlineplatforms, male prostitutes have found themselves capable ofsoliciting customers at a faster rate (Smith &amp Grov, 2011). Fromthe start of the twenty-first era, studies have depicted a relevantchange from bar, street and offline soliciting to escortadvertisements, which are online. In place of risking their lives bypublicizing themselves in parks, sidewalks and strolls, streethustlers started to visit chat rooms progressively where theyidentify their services as ready for hire (Smith &amp Grov, 2011).Bathhouse and bar male prostitutes as well started to broadcastonline. The prostitutes, frequently with limited resources, were ableto access computers by visiting libraries and coffee houses, wherethere are no or less internet charges. Individual advertisements andchat rooms would be employed without charges (Smith &amp Grov,2011). Though bar and street prostitutes have not faded away inAmerican towns, they are lesser as more efficient and easy sellingvenues online become probable. The internet has made it possible formale prostitutes to gain from benefits prior available to escortsconcerning working in the comfort of their homes, as well as thecapability to pre-screen potential customers. An additional advantageis the ability to access more clients. Through marketing and takingpart in online forums dealing with males searching for sexualrelations from other males, prostitutes enhanced clients’capability of finding them (Smith &amp Grov, 2011).

Online male prostitution has as well altered the manner in whichindependent escorts and organization carry out their work. Apart fromdepending entirely on print marketing, escorts currently focus theirselling endeavors towards venues, which avail the best alternative ofcontacting clients the similar online platforms were currently beingemployed by males that may have in the past worked in the streets(Smith &amp Grov, 2011). Business individuals, realizing thepossible demand, created classified advertisement websites, whichescorts would pay a substantial amount for advertising. Inclusivemarketplaces for men prostitutes are apparent online. There are manyadvertisements publicized in different time zones, properly arrangedby town and cross-indexed (Smith &amp Grov, 2011). This makes itprobable for possible customers to seek for specific actions,physical traits and price ranges. Unpaid versus paid marketingwebsites have formed an advent division amid male prostitutes. Theprostitutes that market their services in free websites arefrequently regarded as low class compared to males that pay formarketing through escort websites. Men selling in online platforms,which do not charge charge lesser unlike those that employ paidonline platforms (Smith &amp Grov, 2011). They might be seen astransitory sex workers seeking to make fast money, prostitutes whoseservices are not regularly available hence, less dependable.

The internet has also influences the male prostitution clientele(Smith &amp Grov, 2011). Males that might not want to visit bars,and seek sexual services from hustlers in streets are capable ofgetting sex from fellow men upon demand from the comfort and secrecyof homes and mobile devices. It is possible for the client to viewwhat they may get prior to one-on-one contact with the prostitutes.Online media platforms make it possible for the client and maleprostitute to communicate, to determine their interests, and paymentsto be made. It is possible that this has resulted in an enhanceddemand for prostitution in males, as the figure of males that haveconsidered benefiting financially from male prostitution has widened(Smith &amp Grov, 2011). The general marketplace has expandednotably it has permeated many regions, even outside city centers,regions that may not have recognized male prostituted previously.Customers have even determined their rating for escorts and clientsatisfaction websites where evaluations are posted to inform if theprostitute met expectations. Expectations are concerning appearance,sexual activities and character (Smith &amp Grov, 2011). Thecustomers also use websites to compare prices. Online escort groups,which get more customers, are those that have more positive clientratings. Escorts also use websites to respond to negative commentswith the objective of ensuring that the negativity does not sway awaypotential customers.

Reasons for Online

Sexual Orientation

It is difficult to describe sexual orientation because sexualconduct, feelings as well as identity are incongruent. In the case ofmale prostitution, it is defined via feelings (West, 2012). Thismeans depending on if sexual conduct with an individual of thesimilar gender results in sexual satisfaction. By the time most malesbecome prostitutes, they are already aware of their sexualorientation. Thus, working as prostitutes implies that they are awareof the clientele they seek. The internet acts as the fundamentalmanner for male prostitutes to market their availability and meettarget clients.

Bisexual and gay male prostitutes work at the exceptionalintersection amid two main social taboos. These are involvement inhomosexuality and the unlawful trade of sexual pleasure for financialgains. In the past, studies determined male prostitutes asheterosexual young adults. Current research depicts them as bisexualsor gay. In a US investigation, 47% of male prostitutes referred tothemselves as gay and 29% bisexual, while just 16.5% are heterosexual(West, 2012). In a different sample comprising of 98 maleprostitutes, 28% said they were bisexual and 52% largely homosexual(West, 2012). Because of the highly discriminated nature of maleprostitution, the individuals might be regarded as deviating fromsocial norms (Boyer, 1989). Hence, most opt to operate their servicesonline, where it is possible to hide identity to the public. The onlyindividuals that get to know of the male prostitutes’ status aretheir customers, who in most instances are also interested incomplete discretion. Although homosexuality and prostitution arewidely becoming entrenched in society, there are individuals thatstill demonstrate hatred and dislike for such conducts.Stigmatization is especially worse for male prostitutes that have yetto be fully accepted by society, as is the case with femaleprostitutes.

Although homosexuality has been legalized in many states,prostitution is yet to be legalized. Notably, homosexual prostitutionis unacceptable as is apparent in the many investigations conductedby law enforcement in curbing prostitution (Koken, Bimbi, Parsons &ampHalkitis, 2004). Male prostitutes cannot walk in the streetsunnoticed, and in most instances, customers are unwilling to drive instreets to express their interests in their services. Hence, workingas a hustler male prostitute implies surviving in a harshenvironment. In cases where the prostitutes are homosexual, then theyseek to provide services to clients that are homosexual, as well. Itis difficult to determine if a customer seeks a homosexual to gratifytheir sexual desire. This has compelled prostitutes to opt to workwith agencies that advertise their services on their behalf.Homosexual prostitution agencies advertise to clients how and wherethey can access the services. Research depicts that most of theseagencies operate within the comfort of their homes (Koken, Bimbi,Parsons &amp Halkitis, 2004). The marketing and provision ofservices happens under the same roof. Thus, prostitutes and customersdo not have to hustle in the streets for services. Most importantly,they are able to conceal their sexual orientation while at the sametime fulfilling their sexual desires.


Male prostitutes depict an array of racial backgrounds. Prostitutescomprise of both underage and of age individuals. Underageprostitutes are most probable to be African American, white, Latinosor Asian (West, 2012). Notably is that the underage male prostitutesare from different social classes, drawn into prostitution because offamily conflicts or deviant behavior. Underage prostitutes are mainlyin the business due to the monetary gain they derive from theirencounters (West, 2012). Hence, they are least likely to be selectivein their clientele. However, such individuals are the target ofcustomers aware that the prostitutes are ready to engage in any formof sexual contact for the money. It is also possible for clients tobe selective in terms of race on the prostitutes, they areinterested in dealing with. Underage male prostitutes operate mainlyin brothels, where clients are able to go to the brothels and selectthe customers that they desire. Brothels are able to get customersbecause they advertise their services online. Brothel managers arecapable of communicating with possible clients on the services theyprovide and the individuals, in terms of race, that will be availingthe services.

Race plays a huge role in society. People relate differentlydepending on their racial background. It is possible that maleprostitutes have encountered some form of racial discrimination.Because society has its different manners of treating persons due totheir race, male prostitutes opt to operate online where it is saferand will not be discriminated on racial basis. Some prostitutes arealso selective on the customers they would prefer. When working inthe streets as hustlers, it is almost impossible to select the clientone prefers. It is likewise difficult for customers to select theirprostitutes. However, working online means that prostitutes maketheir race clear and determine the customers that they intend toserve. Since prostitute profiles and customer profiles are visible toboth parties through media platforms, both parties are able to agreeon their racial point of reference. It is easier for male prostitutesto turn down clients that they deem do not meet their racial needs.Operating as online prostitutes ensures that the individuals concealtheir identity in terms of race. This probably explains why there islimited research on race and male prostitution.

Online prostitution does not merely benefit the prostitute but clientas well. Clients prefer to meet prostitutes online as it is possibleto be selective on the race of prostitutes. For instance, a whiteclient may prefer an African American prostitute to a fellow whiteprostitute. Such selection is difficult to achieve when hustling forprostitutes in streets. Online prostitution is convenient andcomprises of many prostitute profiles to choose from, and contact.

Online is Secure

Since prostitution is illegal in many states, it is difficult forprostitutes that are victims of attack or rape to report theincidences. Research demonstrates that many prostitutes have beenvictims of attacks and rape, which is mostly perpetrated by customers(Jewkes &amp Yar, 2013). This is because the perpetrators areunknown to their victims and few victims are willing to conceal theirillegal sexual actions. Once a client picks a prostitute from thestreet, business communication involving how much to pay, whatservices to execute, happens hurriedly and on the spot. This meansthat the customer and prostitute do not even take time to familiarizewith each other (Jewkes &amp Yar, 2013). The customer could be aserial killer, criminal or harboring other intentions. Hence, mostmale prostitutes have opted to operate online where they feel saferand capable of protecting themselves and their interests. Whenmale prostitutes make their services available online, they are ableto chat, exchange pictures, negotiate and familiarize with potentialclients. By chatting with their clients, they are able to know abouttheir customers. Although it is difficult to become familiar with anindividual over text, it eliminates the feeling that one will bedealing with a stranger. In most instances, prostitutes that gettheir clients online provide their sexual activities from the comfortof their homes. The client and prostitute meet at the prostitute’sconvenient location hence, the probability that the client with posea threat to the prostitute is minimal. In cases where prostituteswork as escorts, they most probably work under escort organizations.The organizations communicate online with potential customers andfollow up to ensure that the customers are genuine. In case acustomer seems suspicious, it is possible to avoid offering theservices, which cannot be achieved when working as hustlers. Anotherbenefit deriving from operating online about security is that theprostitute is clear on the services they provide. This means thatonce the customer and prostitute meet, they are completely clear onwhat to do. Payment is also discussed online and down payments may bemade, which guarantees that the client will not forfeit payment afterreceiving sexual services offered.


Male prostitution has been widespread and progresses to permeatesociety. Many individuals engage in the business for monetarypurposes. The advancement of the internet in this century has made itprobable for male prostitutes to operate secretively online. Some ofthe reasons male prostitutes opt to work online are linked toensuring their security, difference in sexual orientation and racialreasons.


Boyer, D. (1989). and Homosexual Identity. Journalof Homosexuality, 17 (1- 2), 151-84.

Flowers, R. B. (2011). Prostitution in the digital age: Sellingsex from the suite to the street. Santa Barbara, California:Praeger.

Jewkes, Y &amp Yar, M. (2013). Handbook of Internet Crime.New York: Routledge.

Koken, J. A., Bimbi, D. S., Parsons, J, T &amp Halkitis, P. N.(2004). The Experience of Stigma in the Lives of Male InternetEscorts. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 16 (1), 13-32.

Smith, M. D., &amp Grov, C. (2011). In the company of men: Insidethe lives of male prostitutes. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

West, D, J. (2012). . New York: Routledge.