MakingCritical Arguments And Using the Tools of Critical Thinking.
Critical thinkingrefers to an explicit way of reasoning and making judgments.According to dunning in the book ‘here be Dragon’ he tries tobring out the idea of thinking critically by applying reasoning toissues that one need to question rather than believe. Jolley, on theother hand, in the book ‘Writing Psychology’ tries to capture theessential elements needed in writing.
Both dunning and Jolley viewscritical thinking as a way of making decisions in acritical manner.Their booth argues that deductive arguments are those that entailtheir conclusion. Dunning argues that there is aneed to experimentand get your results after which you argue according to the findingshence having a logical explanation on what leads to an inevitableoutcome. Jolley emphasizes this by saying if premises are trueautomatically the conclusion is valid hence making the argument notonly right but also cogent.(Mitchell,2013 )
Jolley and Dunning differ intheir arguments in that Jolley argues that deductive arguments maybe unsound because they are invalid and not because of questionablepremises. While Dunning does not in any way believe in conspiracytheories. He says it`s illogical that ancient believes are accurateyet they do not have scientifically proves. He compares the ancientbelieves with a red flag. Unlike Jolley, who even divide criticalthinking into deductive and inductive, for him he strongly relies onthe quality of the information and not the quantity.(Dunning, 2014 )
Therefore from the views ofthe two, critical thinking is analyzed. Where the idea ofpseudo-science comes in which means using ideas that seem to be real,but not supported by science.Hence, critical thinking is seen as thedriver of thehumanrace, and for a judgment to be valid its premiseshas to be true making its conclusion to be also right.
However, people make errors intheir process of making critical judgmentsthat include havingunjustified from premises, having questionable premise, and more sousing false assumptionsthatlead to having an illogical view. Theerrors are mostly due to people wanting unexplained things, peopleliking simple things that are seductive, the inquisitive nature ofman and finally lack of tools for critical thinking.However, thesecan be rectified by thinking critically putting into considerationthat one should act locally which is done through criticizingtheories to make informed decisions and acting globally which is doneby giving pseudoscience equal time. Hence, thechoicebetweenpseudoscience and science is choice between stagnation and progress.
Mitchell, M., & O`Shea, R. (2013, January 1). Writing forPsychology. Retrieved November 3, 2014, fromhttp://www.jolley-mitchell.com/writingforpsychology/
Dunning, B. (n.d.). Here Be Dragons: Introduction to CriticalThinking.Retrieved November 3, 2014.