Leadershipand Management Strategic of Change
Table of Contents
Leadership and management strategic of change 3
Strategic change 6
Organizational challenges in effecting change management and leadership 7
The significance of core capabilities in enabling organizations implements change 8
Guiding values and processes towards change leadership 9
Is strategic change unremitting or continuous? 11
Objectives of strategic leadership and management 14
Leader actions and environmental characteristics 15
Leadership and management in strategic change 17
With increasedderegulation, globalization, and technological innovation, leadershipof organizational change i.e. strategic change has become animportant aspect of organizational behavior today. In fact, aparadigm context of management literature has evolved in strategicchange. In this regards, a discourse centered on leadership andmanagement strategic change will provide the role of leadership inmanaging changes. In addition, the possibility of highlighting theaspects critical to cultivating strategic change effectively willcome into play. The essay will evaluate the opinion that effectualstrategic change involves charismatic and transformative leadership,assimilating operational expertise with robust interpersonal skills.Integrating a body of literature and numerous leadership and changemodels, the paper recognizes the significance of leadership andmanagement in strategic change. The paper will also provide acontextual aspect of strategic change, its implications toorganizational dynamics, and relation with leadership. It will showthat charismatic and transformative leadership cultivate the neededstrategic change in organizations thus, the need for organizationsto implement models that entail this form of leadership
Leadershipand management strategic of changeIntroduction
Leadership andchange management strategy involves numerous aspects of leadership,change, and management issues. Burnes (2004) defines strategic changeas the rearrangement of an organization’s productions or promotionplan performed in an attempt to accomplish a significant objective.Here, an organization applies strategic leadership and management todesign the areas of change, significance of change, and incorporateapproaches to implement the change. On the other hand, Moran andBrightman (2001) define change management as the process throughwhich an organization renews its organization’s structure,capacities, and direction repeatedly. Here, organizations recognizethe need for change both at strategic and operational level thus,they implement strategies that align with the planned or strategicchange. Because of increased technological innovation, deregulation,and globalization, strategic leadership of organizational change hasbecome a fundamental task for organizations in all levels.
Burnes (2004),Nelson (2003) and De Wit and Meyer (2005) assert that the need forchange is usually erratic, inclines to be responsive, sporadic,extemporized, and prompted by a state of organizational predicamentthus, organizations need to have proper and effective leadershipframework at place to implement this change. Although people acceptthe efficacious management of change as a requisite in order topersist and prosper in the current’s exceedingly competitive andunceasingly developing environment, most administrations report ahigh percentage of failures in most initiatives concerning strategicchange. In fact, De Wit and Meyer (2005) report a success rate of30%, which indicates a basic lack of useable context of applying andrunning organizational change. In this regards, most studies providethat change is inevitable hence, the need for organizations tocultivate contexts and approaches that ensure the success of suchchanges.
However, resistance to change has compounded matters fororganizations willing to undergo change and this requires strategicleadership to manage this change. Today, high competition, increasedglobalization, and increased innovation as aforementioned have forcedorganizations to provide contextual changes in their aspectscontinuously. In addition, external and internal factors of anorganization trigger change hence, organizations cannot escape theparadigm shifts of change. In this regards, strategic leadershipprovides the needed support and guideline to oversee change hence, adiscourse that centers on management and leadership in overseeingstrategic change. The paper will concentrate on the aspects ofstrategic change, but it will also provide a background on theimplications of strategic leadership on management change.
Abdelgawad etal., (2013) contend that dealing with prompt, multifaceted, andusually discontinuous change requires transformative leadership. AsHechanova and Cementina-Olpoc, (2013) suggest managements requirenovel leadership strategies in order to remain sustainable andeffective in meeting current and future challenges. Here,organizations must have leaders who understand the aspects, nature,complexities, and implications of external change. In addition, theseleaders must have the capacities to develop effectual approaches formanaging change and the determination or capacity to accomplish theimpetus of the organization effectively. These leaders mustcomprehend the changes taking place in their different environmentand they should not only become reactive to the changes, but alsoendeavor to generate a successful future for the organizations.Creating the urgency of a change and then cultivating a vision forthe planned change allows these leaders to lead and manageorganizations in an effective manner. Here, Hechanova andCementina-Olpoc (2013) define the activities of change and managementof change as strategic management since the activities are essentialin leading organizations.
In the past,Abdelgawad et al., (2013) say that scholars and managers havepracticed numerous strategic management especially from aquantitative standpoint, but with increased globalization orcompetition, deregulation, and technological advancements, businessenvironments have become fluid thus, the need to cultivate strategicleadership to lead planned change. In their research, Moss et al.,(2014) conclude that the exploration for a conclusive quantifiableexplanation to the future is no longer achievable. In fact, such anexploration can stifle obligation, contract the vision of the leadersinvolved, and make change less possible to occur as the factors thatgenerate resistance to change thrive well in such a situation. Inthis regards, scholars and researchers have identified newrepresentations of strategic management that place more focus onsynthesis rather than pure studies.
In these newmodels, Abdelgawad et al., (2013) define strategic leadershipas the capacity or capability to make substantial judgments aboutends, engagements, and maneuvers in abstruse situations. Here,Abdelgawad et al., (2013) utilize the term strategic leadersto recognize leaders who manage to lead and manage instantaneouslythus, guide alterations with a thoughtful appreciation of steadinessduring periods of ambiguity. According to Moss et al., (2014)such leaders practice the intonation of collective ends andprinciples, and adjustable behaviors and means. The essential tenetof strategic leadership is that leaders who manage to reason and actpurposefully manage to generate more reassuring organizationalsituations and attain more treasured organizational consequences.This capacity to work in a strategic manner must extend to all levelsof an organization if an organization wants to achieve the neededchange. In addition, the principles governing strategic leadershipperceive effectiveness as dependent on how adeptly the organizationreacts and reacclimatize to its ever-changing setting and howeffective the leader is repeatedly reintroducing the structures oflearning within the organization. The capacity to reason agility andact as an artist as the fundamental capabilities require running twoproprieties i.e. strategic reasoning and strategic implementation.
Today, change isubiquitous in the society and an essential aspect in organizations.Beatty and Quinn (2010) assert that the impetus for change comes frombusiness situations i.e. internal and external environments of anorganization. In this regards, Beatty and Quinn (2010) claimstrategic leadership should be proactive to change, such that awell-balanced vision can help to balance proactive and reactivechanges within an organization. Change becomes most important toorganizations that wish to prosper in complex, uncertain, volatile,and ambiguous situations. Aspects such as globalization and increasedtechnological innovation mean that an organization must developchange to remain competitive.
Change is unavoidable and constant. In the 90’s organizations beganunderstanding the need to focus on sound organizational strategiesthat could propel businesses towards novel core capabilities neededto enhance such strategies. Organizational success in the short andlong term is largely dependent on the capability to adapt and mangecontemporary environmental transformations through good leadershipand management strategic of change. The identification and subsequentdevelopment of able leadership is important to guide strategicorganizational change. Leaders are tasked with spearheading thedevelopment of effective strategies aimed at recruiting developingand retaining effective and appropriate successors (Slattery, 2013).
Organizationalchallenges in effecting change management and leadership
Cultural factors drive change in the market environment. Over thepast two decades, markets have expanded to a global scale. This hasbeen driven by the globalization of business operations, oil industrystresses, technological innovations, and advances, risk of terrorgroups and corporate scandals (Slattery, 2013). The market isincreasingly becoming more competitive and to be able to continueprofitably, organizations have to conform to consumer preferences.Transformation efforts towards this end are aimed at identifying andadapting to market uncertainties and a dynamic external environment,which may positively or negatively influence organizationaloperations.
It is important to note that a number of change-oriented strategieshave led to the collapse of many organizations. Research studiesindicate that organizations are much more likely to experiencefailure if they aim strategies towards reacting to market fads.Organizations need to work towards cultivating an organizationalculture, which monitors and positively responds to fundamental marketchanges proactively, allows stakeholder collaborations and alignedwith an organization’s strategy and most importantly, vision(Slattery, 2013).
A number of shortcomings in essence affect unsuccessful changestrategies. Some of these shortcomings include an unclearorganizational vision towards attaining change objectives and thefailure to create a sense of organizational urgency towards change.Rothaermel (2013) says that other shortcomings include ineffectivecommunication of the vision to stakeholders, a poor guidingcoalition, and unsuccessful attempts to recognize and eradicatechange alignment strategies. The premature celebrations of achievedsuccess may lead to stakeholders losing focus leading to a failuretowards incorporating necessary changes into the organization’sculture.
Thesignificance of core capabilities in enabling organizationsimplements change
Core capabilities enable organizations have coherent ideas that areessential in guiding all other organizational choices. These have tobe specific, simple, clear and unifying to drive thrivingadvancements towards new competitors, markets, technology andproducts (Rothaermel, 2013). When faced with these complexsituations, the organization has to isolate what has to change. Someof these complexities include acquisitions and mergers, thesuitability of a leader, interdisciplinary collaborations andcreating and pursuing strategic plans.
Human systems within the organizational structure have the capacityto develop capacity though a translation and conversion processesthrough leadership. Evolution and transformation of organizationalprocesses towards the newly identified direction, configuration, andcommitment from the entire organizational members then follows thisaspect (Moss et al., 2014). The transformation process is effectedone member at a time beginning with the leader and filtering down toother members in organizations. This can however be accelerated byincorporating joint experiences. This involves the implementation ofleadership strategies.
Guidingvalues and processes towards change leadership
Without a strong and effective leadership, organizations are mostlikely to experience failure in effecting a change process. The ChiefExecutive Officer (CEO) is the change leader. The CEO leads anorganization’s team tasked with supporting and driving changeobjectives as well as appealing to stakeholders to ensure totalcommitment (Moss et al., 2014). The leader is tasked with suitablyresponding and guiding an organization through transformationalchallenges through the creation of new systems, which propel thechange process. Manuals have specific roles of a leader is clearlydefined, but the procedural processes to effect change in most casesremain unclear. Leaders have to surpass leadership challenges torealize desired change management results
A limited leadership pool may be because of diminishing birth rates,an aging workforce or growing workforce diversity. Many nationsovercome this challenge by relying on immigrants who in most caseshave to transcend the cultural divide to integrate into an. Forexample, a leader in collaboration with the Human resourcesdepartments has a role to recruit, train, mentor and retainindividuals with desired leadership qualities. This entails strategicHR practices aimed at developing policies, which recruit train andretain a sustainable supply of individuals with desired leadershiptraits.
Leadership development policies aimed at nurturing tomorrow’sleaders today progressively keep ahead of the change curve byfostering a culture of progressive learning. Here, leaders canestablish this by mentoring new organizational leaders by exposingthem to appropriate experiences and skills consistent with thecontemporary market environment (Moss, et al., 2014). Organizationscan also foster leadership development by preparing ex3ecutive levelfunctions facilitating the growth of managers with strong corporatevalues.
In the past, organizations have thrived on a culture, which promotesthe hoarding of knowledge. Current market conditions call for theorganizational culture that promotes knowledge sharing thustransforming an organization into a learning organization (Moss etal. 2014). This can play a great role towards innovativeness,sustainable growth and improved value creation. Middle levelmanagement in such an organization is ideally placed to develop theirmental and political acumen to offer assistance guidance to theexecutive management levels and lead from the front.
To attain successful organizational change, there has to be a cleardistinction between management and leadership attributes. Managementrelates to dealing with complexities via budgeting and planning.Leadership on the other hand relates to incorporating change byintroducing change, establishing a course of direction and changevision (Moss et al. 2014). Cultivating strong teams and the abilityto appropriately identifying the right time to change leadershipstyles is important in maintaining organizational momentum.
Followers have to be empowered and motivated to achieve desiredchange strategies. An organization can enable this through fosteringdiscipline. A discipline approach towards achieving organizationalgoals is very important in ensuring strategies and policies areexecuted in the right manner and within the set timeframe. Disciplineis there a critical element in the change process. Many organizationshave developed change strategies, which are highly impressive only tofail achieving stated goals for the lake of vital change managementqualities.
In effecting change management strategies, the degree of preparednessin response to change propels an organization through an identifiedstrategic path (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). Preparedness enablesthe organization to identify whether the chosen path presents threatsor opportunities. In fact, many previous household brands have sunkinto oblivion for the failure be prepared to adapt to change (Moss etal. 2014). It is the role of leaders to ensure that theorganizational environment is closely monitored to respondappropriately. This implies that an organization’s leadership hasto have mechanisms in place to assess and analyze market developmentsby looking into external factors towards the formulation of strongstrategies.
Change is a continuous process and thus can be implemented over along period. This involves changing the organizational culture,systems, labor force skills sets, and habits. Strategic plans are amust to enable the organization is successful in the long term andavoid collapsing under change (Moss et al., 2014). The aspects ofembracing change and strategically planning for change has to beperceived as a never-ending process.
Isstrategic change unremitting or continuous?
The most imperative element within the realms of strategic change isto continue to offer robust track in line with inclusive approachesand essential determinations of the organization.  Here, aleader must maintain a strong vision, as well as detailed successprocesses, which means that a leader must set examples, try novelinitiatives, and develop measures to monitor change. Nelson (2003),De Wit and Meyer (2005), and Moran and Brightman (2001) assert that aleader must not only lead from the front, but must also learn to leadfrom the central or the rearmost and when other people suggest newinitiatives, procedures or resolutions, be the first to offercommendation and reward.  To implement strategic change asdesired, a good leader must become a coach and a mentor to otherpeople. Here, Burnes (2004) and Moss et al., (2014) assert that theleader should see himself/herself as the core, but also thesupporting aspect of strategic change. In this regards, a leadermust interpret organization’s strategy and resolution, so that whenthe management proposes the strategy they can explain he/she canexplain the working aspects of the strategy.
In the past, most organizations thought that they were supposed to dothe strategy making process annually. Here, they saw the process as afundamentally linear procedure with a different beginning andconclusion. When a management completed each objective or goal, itwould check off the objective in a predefined checklist, which led to“prints” of points in time, which had little or nothing to dowith the ever-changing poverties and essentials of the organization’sclients and other stakeholders. However, strategic leadership allowsa leader to focus time on the procedures of strategic change,objectives, visions, and the implementation strategy of thequantified and evaluated objectives. Here, as most studies opine,change becomes a continuous process, with innovation developing asthe essential driver of that change.
Moss et al.,(2014) define leadership as the capacity of ability of leaders toheed and observe, to utilize their proficiency as a preparatory pointto inspire discourse among all levels of decision-making, toinaugurate processes and clearness, and to articulate, but not imposetheir visions and values. Likewise, Burnes (2004) explains thatleadership is about situations and not merely responding to agendas,identifying challenges facing an organization and initiating plannedchange that makes for considerable enhancement instead of managingchange. Here, the scholars assert that strategic leadership is notabout managing change, but it is about identifying challenges facingan organization and then pursuing an approach that identifies thesolutions to the challenges. Leaders should establish processes thatseek to implement the needed change and then draw approaches thatmonitor the level of change. In this regards, strategic leadership isthe capacity to influence other people to voluntarily make continuousdecisions that augment the long-term feasibility of an organizationwhile at the same time preserving short-term stability.
Burnes (2004) define strategic leaders as leaders who haveorganizational capacities with tactically orientation hence, theytranslate approach into action, support people and organizations,regulate operative tactical intervention locus, and progress tacticalproficiencies. Such leaders display discontent or impatience with thepresent thus, they seek to provide adaptive and absorptivecapacities. Leadership is about orienting the aspects of anorganization in a strategic manner, then planning, and implementingthose aspects when situations become ambiguous. Moss et al.,(2014) assert that tactical leaders influence organizations by liningtheir structures, cultures, organizational behaviors, and systems toensure constancy with the strategy chosen. In addition, theyinfluence employees to make decisions that augment an organization indeveloping planned change.
Abdelgawad et al., (2013) assert that change managementrequires strategic leadership i.e. a leadership style that providesdirection and vision for the development and provision of businesssuccess factors. An organization cannot deal with change successfullywithout the needed skills and tools for strategic formulation andapplication of management change. In this regards, Abdelgawad etal., (2013) assert that managing ambiguity and change requires atransformative, charismatic, and strategic leader who providesfundamental essence of direction and construct ownership andconfiguration within the various workgroups to implement the neededchange. According to Burnes (2004), strategic leadership requiresprocesses that offer the need for change and then provides the neededframework for the change.
Objectivesof strategic leadership and management
Slattery (2013)asserts that within the realms of strategic change, leadership andmanagement of change occurs in three key places i.e. at the core ofthe business (where the management formulates strategies), and in themiddle (where the management translates the strategy into regional orbusiness units). In addition, leadership occurs in the departmentlevel (where employees with the help of the management translates theformulated business strategy goals into personal objectives. At alllevels, strategic leadership or management provides the possibilityor direction to assist drive the business success factors of theorganization. In this regards, leaders need essential tools such asvision, relational skills, operational skills, analytic skills, andgoals to drive the change. Without the right balance between theskills and the processes involved in strategic change, strategicleadership cannot succeed. As such, leaders must create the rightbalance between processes’ execution, human dimensions, andanalysis of visions.
Strategic changehappens within the realms of organization especially when ambiguoussituations develop. Here, Slattery (2013) and Beatty and Quinn (2010)assert that a strategic leader or manager design the analyticprocesses of an organization with the objective of cultivating aperfect strategy for strategic change. Here, the leader mustinterpret the market and the needs that the organization require fromleader and align those needs with competencies, strengths, andessential purposes of the organization and its employees. Inaddition, the leader must make sure that the all-pertinent people ownthe constructed perfect strategy. Here, good strategic leaders mustcooperate in the establishment of the strategy with all dynamicparticipants and associates of their teams. In addition, they shouldensure that all participants in the constructed and executed strategydevelop the needed skills and knowledge.
Leaderactions and environmental characteristics
Slattery (2013)asserts that for a leader to become a strategic leader with thecapacity to offer management strategic change, he/she must have corecompetencies of relational, operational, and analytical. Here,operational skills or competencies refer to skills that involve therunning and regulation of an aspect within an organization.Operational competencies include commitment, motivation, andinspiration, and allow a leader to cultivate functioning aspects ofan organization. On the other hand, relational competencies refer toskills that involve connections with other people such asinterpersonal skills, excellent communication skills, and effectivenegotiation skills while analytic skills refer to skills that allow aleader to relate situations with implications. According to Nelson(2003), strategic leaders should understand the different situationsaffecting their organizations i.e. they should understand weaknessesand strengths that affect the day-to-day operations of anorganization. In this regards, these leaders understand thedemographic, societal, and operational trends and implications oforganizational aspects that determine the business success factors ofan organization. In addition, these leaders understand thedistinctions of status, prestige, and authority within organizationshence, they should have capacity to make tough decisions in ambiguoussituations.
According toSlattery (2013), most leaders fail because they use constricted setof guidelines and actions (i.e. task/transmuting/transactional) toinspire followers and employees. Business situations have changeddramatically thus, leaders need to lead and manage all aspects of anorganization instantaneously. This expectancy puts a quality onparallel and concerted activities as well as the conventionaltiered actions of past representations. Slattery (2013) grounds histactical leadership ideal in all-inclusive learning proceduresof strategic reasoning and strategic implementation guided byleaders using executive, transmuting, dogmatic and principledengagements to change or steady their organizations.  Previousresearches of the aforementioned model have found the essence ofusing strategic leadership in the management of strategic change.Burnes (2004), Nelson (2003), and Moran and Brightman (2001) foundout that managers who managed to use a varied range of tacticalleader actions were more effectual than those who utilized limitedvarieties. In addition, the researchers found out thatadministrative actions are essential when executing centrallyuttered policies. Burnes (2004) found out that mechanism ofthe altering, radical and principled actions were relatedwith more consistent work philosophies. In this regards, theseresearches support Slattery suggestion that effective leaders utilizea broader range of these actions than less effectual leadersthus, the use of strategic leadership increases effectiveness withinan organization and allow effective implementation of strategicchange.
As Slattery(2013), Abdelgawad et al., (2013), and Moss et al.,(2014) note, perspective in implementing and monitoring change isimperative. Abdelgawad et al., (2013) believe thatmanagerial or organizational situation is a significant aspect thatinfluences how a leader performs. According to Abdelgawad et al.,(2013), situation edicts the selection of arrangement and the meansthrough which an organization implements communication. Nelson (2013)claims that external and internal situations influence and contributeto the development of strategic leadership within the context ofstrategic change. On the other hand, Abdelgawad et al.,(2013) claim that organizational situations play a great role instrategic and transformative leadership hence, an organizationnavigating a turbulent situation should cultivate strategicleadership to implement change. However, Abdelgawad et al.,(2013) assert that leadership and its efficacy depends onextensive variability of situational and managerial conditionsas well as the style of leadership.
Moss et al., (2014) assert that management is not onlythe augmentation inspiration of a leader towards dependents, butmost significant it is the shared incremental of leaders withinthe systems of an organization. Burnes (2004) and Nelson (2003)distinguish effectual leaders from managers. According to Burnes(2004) and Nelson (2003) effectual leaders s
atisfy high aspects of performances while managers manage peoplethus, an organization pursuing to implement strategic change shoulddevelop effective leaders rather than managers. Here, a leader mustinfluence employees, implement strategic change during ambiguoussituations and pursue objectives that allow an organization todevelop sustainability. The productivity standards achieved and thelevel of employee engagement in an organization determines theeffectiveness of a leader hence, leaders must develop approachesthat attempt to transform an organization rather than manage theaspects of the organization. Different perceptions exist concerningleadership and strategic change, but most of the standpoints fail toaddress the issues of making strategic decisions. Here, Moss etal., (2014) assert that organizations must construct change thataligns to the visions and missions of the organization, but shouldalso consider external factors that influence its business successfactors.
Leadershipand management in strategic change
Beatty and Quinn(2010) introduced a leadership model that entails three constituentsi.e. who, how, and what. In this model, reasoning, acting, andinfluencing becomes the three codependent processes for the model.Beatty and Quinn (2010) assert that strategic leadership have thecapacity to determine effectual intrusion points, which means thattheir strategy is to develop novel visions, create new approaches,and move in a novel and unexpected direction. Along these loci, themost significant aspect is to time when to interpose and directplanned change versus the intervention approaches put in place. Themodel perceives leadership as an aspect that involves innovation andchange urgency, where leaders think strategically to achieve plannedobjectives.
As Beatty andQuinn (2010) contends, strategic leadership allows management toachieve planned change and monitor that change to attain specificgoals. Using strategic leadership, organizations can manage to attainidentify situations that need change and then cultivate plannedchange to change those situations. However, Burnes (2004) assert thatthere exist different leadership styles within the spectrum of anorganization. Burnes (2004) and Slattery (2013) differentiate betweenvisionary, strategic, and managerial types of leadership. As such, itis significant to understand the traits of each leadership style todraw out an implied and conclusive aspect on management and strategicchange. Strategic change in a management requires strategicleadership since strategic leadership postulates a collective visionof what the management wants the organization to become. Here,day-to-day decision-making processes must have a consistentcorrelation with an organization vision. Organizations face numerouschallenges in their operations thus, leaders need to developapproaches on how they can meet expectations of the organization.However, Nelson (2003) asserts that addressing the expectations of anorganization requires developing strategic leadership and decisionshence, an organization can achieve and monitor change throughstrategic leadership. Here, leaders need to adjust a strategyaccording to the required conditions, but since they cannot commit tothe expectations of organizations alone, they need to influence otherpeople so they can have an analytical dimension to a problem.
Change is much more than creating a vision for an organization. Itinvolves strategic leadership and management, which allow anorganization to move from a tradition hierarchical paradigm to aninnovative and strategic dynamic. The relation between implementingchange and scanning the business situation, making an approximationof the state, and determining the aspects of a change allows a leaderto create a vision and develop mechanisms to oversee that vision. The process involves assessing costs, creating an effectivedecision-making process, and creating awareness and urgency of aplanned change. The failure to recognize the link between humanbehavior and change by leaders limits the possibilities ofimplementing and monitoring change. Organizations apply strategicleadership and management to strategize areas of change, implicationof change, and integrate methodologies to implement the change. Inthis regards, strategic change and leadership interlinks in theprovision of the desired vision and implementation of that vision.The cultivation of an effective and determined aspect of leadershipallows organizations to implement change and remain in course tooversee the implementation of a desired vision. As aforementioned,strategic leadership and management in affecting strategic change isvery essential, but leaders must create the right link between humanbehavior and change.
The most important feature in an organizational change process is theleader as they are in essence change agents. For change strategies tobe successful, a leader has to play the pivotal role of projecting acompelling vision appealing to external and internal stakeholders.Leaders communicate the desired urgency, project a high degree ofpersonal commitment, and enable stakeholders to contribute at fullpotential. A change management process dictates that an organizationhas to triumph over perceived leadership challenges proactively focuson strategies embracing change.
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