JAPAN, INDIA AND CHINA’S COMMON FEATURES 7
Japan,India and China’s Common Features
Japan,India and China’s Common Features
Colonialismwas, with no doubt, one of the most fundamental episodes in thehistory of a large number of countries. Indeed, this applies toalmost all countries even in instances where they did not fall underthe rule of other countries or propagate their authority over othernations. It underlined the practice and policy of gaining partial orfull political control over another nation, thereby allowing for itsoccupation by settlers, as well as the subsequent economicexploitation of the country. Needless to say, this vice came withnumerous effects or impacts on the two countries, with a large numberof them being negative on the colonized country, while the colonizerhad positive effects. Indeed, it has well been acknowledged that theeffects of colonialism are felt even after the vice was stopped inthe numerous countries affected, especially considering that thegovernance structures that the colonized countries subsequentlyadopted were borrowed from the colonial powers. On the same note, itis well acknowledged that the colonial powers usually applied similarrules and regulations on the colonies irrespective of the differencesin geographical locations. This means that a large number ofcountries that were under the control of a single colonizer hadsimilar experiences and, therefore, are linked by a common colonialexperience. This was the case for Japan, India and China.
Japan,China and India were all under the control of Britain at differenttimes, as well as in different levels or magnitudes. In the case ofIndia, it is noted that there were quite a number of countries thatexercised controls over it in different times. First, there wasArabia, which stole the Indian number system and renamed it theArabic number system. Afterwards, there came the Persia Mughals whosefundamental influence revolves around the alteration of the foodsconsumed in northern India making it spicier and richer compared tothe Southern India foods. India, later on, fell into the hands of theBritish who imposed the English language on the country, as well asBritish democracy and property ownership, resulting in the emergenceof Anglo-Indian populations (Massad,2001).One of the most fundamental aspects of the British colonialism onIndia is the fact that it resulted in the split of India into othercountries such as Sri Lanka, Pakistani, India, and Bangladeshi.China, on the other hand, did not experience colonialism in the senseof occupation but rather through the imposition of trade rights andconcessions. Nevertheless, the country lost Hong Kong to GreatBritain following the latter’s winning of the First Opium War.Further, the country lost other parts such as the Southern Kowloonfollowing Great Britain’s winning of the Second Opium War (Tan&Kudaisya, 2008).Following her loss of the two Opium Wars, China had no alternativebut to open more of its ports to trading. On the same note,Netherlands and China traded what is not the Taiwan region back andforth throughout the centuries. Further, the country was forced tosurrender its control of Korea to the Japanese. Of particular note isthe effect that colonialism had on China. Indeed, the Chinese foreignrelations with a large number of world powers in the 19thand 20thcentury came to semi-colonialism as Japan, Russia, Britain andFrance, as well as the United States forced the country to maketerritorial and trade concessions in a set of unequal treaties(Massad,2001).Japan, on the other hand, did not undergo formal colonization fromWestern powers, but was instead a colonizer. Nevertheless, thecountry has experienced or undergone formal semi-colonial situationswith the contemporary Japan being profoundly impacted by the Westerncolonialism in varied ways. Needless to say, these three countriesare particularly connected by their shared colonial experiences.
Oneof the key similarities between the three countries revolves aroundthe manner in which they were affected by the colonialism. This isparticularly with regard to their economies. Scholars haveacknowledged that the colonialism may have resulted in increasedtrading activities for the three countries. In the case of India, thecolony did not have an alternative other than to surrender to thepowers that be. A large number of commodities that the country had tooffer would be shipped out to other parts of the globe for trade,with the financial resources collected from such endeavors going tothe colonizers. In support of trade in agricultural products fromIndia, the Britons imposed institutional modifications through thetransformation of the conventional private property rights topolicies that bore more close resemblance to the private propertyaspects pertaining to Western capitalism. As noted earlier,colonialism was also used to coerce China into making some tradeconcessions with other countries including Great Britain, Japan,France, Portugal and others. These concessions were bound to enhancethe trade relations between China and other countries (Massad,2001).As much as it was at one time a colonizer, Japan also had increasedtrade with the West as indicated by the treaty ports includingYokohama and Kobe. Indeed, it is noted that the westerners whodwelled at these port cities foreign settlements largely composed ofBritons, Americans and continental Europeans, all of whom werebusiness people (Massad,2001).As much as there was increased trade and opening up of ports, it isworth noting that the countries were not the greatest beneficiariesof this increased business, rather the proceeds went to their westernmasters.
Onthe same note, it may be argued that colonialism may have primarilyresulted in enhancement of scientific knowledge and technologicaldevelopment. Of course, this effect may have run counter to theintended effects as the colonizers would have preferred to keep theirsubjects technologically inferior so as to promote their rule forlonger. However, scholars have acknowledged that Asians responded tothe colonization from Europeans in varied ways, one of which was“Westernization” (Watt&Mann, 2011).A large number of these had argued that they fell under the yoke ofcolonialism as a result of their technological inferiority anddeficiency of scientific knowledge as compared to the Europeans. Inessence, they acknowledged that the only way that they could get theforeigners out of the picture was to become westernized throughlearning their ways and taking up the technologies that thecolonialists had invented. These technologies were primarily aimed atenhancing the military capabilities of the countries so as to enablethem to bargain on equal footing and expel the colonialists fromtheir territories (Watt&Mann, 2011).Indeed, this was the only way that the countries would disengagethemselves from the control of the colonialists. It is, therefore, nowonder that the three countries rank highly as far as theincorporation of high military capabilities and technologicaladvancements in the contemporary human society is concerned. Indeed,all of these countries have nuclear capabilities and also come upwith some of the most incredible technological inventions (Watt&Mann, 2011).
Onthe same note, there are questions regarding the influence ofcolonialism on the populations of these countries. Indeed, it haswell been acknowledged that the colonialism may have resulted in thetremendous growth particularly in the case of India and China. Thiswas especially as a result of the high number of people required towork in the field, as well as the acknowledgement that the colonizerscould only be defeated through having bigger militaries alongside thesophisticated weaponry (Tan&Kudaisya, 2008).Japan only managed to arrest its population growth as a result of thefact that it was not fully under colonial rule rather it was simplyforced to make some adjustments to its ports and the manner in whichthey were governed so as to make business more lucrative for theWestern businessmen.
Inconclusion, colonialism comes as one of the most fundamentaloccurrences in the history of mankind. It is well acknowledged thatit had quite a number of effects on the countries in play, with thevictims bearing negative effects while the culprits took up thepositive ones. For a large number of these countries, their destinywas shared especially when they fell under similar colonialists (Tan&Kudaisya, 2008).This is the same case for Japan, India and China, whose sharedexperiences connected them. This is especially with regard to themanner in which they were affected by the vice, both in their socialfabric and the economic aspects.
Massad,J. A. (2001). Colonialeffects: The making of national identity in Jordan.New York: Columbia University Press.
Tan,T. Y., & Kudaisya, G. (2008). Partitionand post-colonial South Asia: A reader.London: Routledge.
Watt,C. A., & Mann, M. (2011). Civilizingmissions in colonial and postcolonial South Asia: From improvement todevelopment.London: Anthem Press.