ISB208L –Globalization Assignment [20pts]
Forthis assignment you are going to conduct Internet research toidentify whether other places in the world are experiencing a similarproblemto what you identified as a problemwithyour project topics, and also see if solutions are being proposed orimplemented elsewhere. To complete this assignment you need to have aclear understanding of the problem you are investigating for yourprojects. Everyone in your group will conduct their own research andthen you will have the opportunity to share and discuss yourfindings. Allwork must be hand-written (-5 pts if typed). Dueat the beginning of class next week.
Step1: What is the ‘problem’ you are investigating?
Clearly describe the problem your group is investigating for your food and the environment project? In this step make a clear connection between the food industry and environmental issue being observed. The more specific you are here the easier and more meaningful your Internet research will become. (2pts)
OceanConservatory posits that plastic bottles are the most dominant formof toxic waste found on our oceans and beaches. A tenth ofmanufactured plastics globally end up in the marine bays, a bulk ofthat settling on the floor of the ocean, where it will certainly notdegrade (Inchesand Whitehead 2009).Thefood, commercial water and beverage industries are among theprominent users of bottling concept in their product packaging.Bottled water businesses are in support of inclusive recyclingpractices which are multi-jurisdictional, scientifically-based andprovide future reutilization of the resource.
Step2: Internet research
Hereyou are trying to identify if this problem(s) has been, or is beingexperienced, elsewhere in the world. For this assignment,‘elsewhere’ in the world refers to another country. Your goal isto find a comparable story to what you are investigating for yourgroup projects. Answer the following questions and complete thisworksheet based on your research. You are required to consult atleast 2 different Internet sites to complete this assignment and listthe sources at the end of the worksheet.
Where else is this problem being experienced? Be specific with the country and locations.(2 pts)
Considerableamount of bottle are manufactured using polyethylene terephthalate(PET) plastics, however PETS photo degrade rather than biodegradewhich means they disintegrate into small fragments. The fragments doabsorb toxins which ultimately contaminate the soil and pollute therivers. Plastic sits in landfills for centuries as they take long todecay, amounting to ceaseless ecologically toxic time bombs.
Inspite of the benefits accrued from the use of bottles, the amount ofpollution caused by the manufacture of plastic bottles isshocking. Many nations of the first world find the use of plasticbottles as the only safe way of transporting liquids. The plasticsare hence re-used uncountable times (Inchesand Whitehead, 2009).Thisdoesn’t add to the pollution challenge in the oceans compared tothe waste that we see in the third world countries.
Nairobiis the capital city of Kenya. Certain sections of the slum dwellings,prominently the Kibera slum features the worst garbage managementsystems in the world. Lack of systems and legislation to even providean enabling environment for garbage and recycling plants is worseningthe situation (Niaounakis,2013). Heapsof unsorted garbage piles up on the streets. Garbage dumpsites arefilled up beyond capacity. The whole city relies on incinerators toburn off the combustible garbage. In addition they have Dandora andMathare dumpsite which acts as landfills of garbage. The local citygovernment is the responsible authority over the collection andsubsequent recycling or burning of garbage. Even though, the localgovernment has passed laws on the same, little can attest to itsimplementation.
Massachusettsis one of 11 states in the U.S. In the early nineteen century, thecity was experiencing an upsurge in garbage. Plastic and glassbottles took a higher percentage of the garbage composition(Niaounakis,2013). Thecity planning department was under scrutiny for negligence in theirduties. The dumping site was becoming overwhelmed and theauthorities did not take necessary measures to counter it. Garbagecollection at home and at the cities began overstaying. The localcommunity became exposed to diseases. That has a bottle bill. As theproblem aggravated, it became a national shame and the nationalgovernment tasked the local government to act else it is dissolved.Consequently, Massachusetts State enacted the Bottle bills. The billrequires the inclusion of a redeemable consumer deposit for everypurchase of any type of beverage containers when a client returns thecontainer. The bill successfully reduces beverage containerwhatsoever time.
Clearly state the similarities and differences to the ‘problem’ you are investigating. (2 pts)
Recyclingrefers to the reduction of litter in a neighborhood. Glassencompasses properties that make it recyclable without compromisingits quality, strength or purity. Massachusetts state departmentcollects glass and plastic bottles at drop-off sites in mostneighborhoods through bottle deposit programs.
Bothcities embrace recycling concepts though they only vary in theircapabilities and implementation strategies. Plastic beverage bottlesare among the most recycled packaged products in the two cities. Thebottled water industries in both countries are working to lessen itsenvironmental impacts by embracing the use of plastics forcontainers. The local municipality ensures that all containers are atleast recyclable (Inchesand Whitehead2009).
What kinds of data were collected or being reported (i.e., qualitative, quantitative), and did they use statistics (quantitative reasoning) to analyze their data? You may need to continue searching the Internet to find some of this information. (4 pts)
Theinformation used was mainly qualitative. Mostly the kind ofinformation used involved literature from other sources and fromprimary investigation by the authors. This helped in creating a goodreport on the topic. It was critical to use this kind of data inthat, it can be understood by all readers despite not having priorexpertise in the topic.
What solution(s) were proposed or implemented to address this problem? (2 pts)
Anumber of solutions have been proposed to counter the menace causedby bottle use. Firstly is the “Pay-As-You-Throw”(PAYT) concept.This concept is practiced in Massachusetts. Residents are charged forthe collection of ordinary household trash based on the amount theythrow away. Thiscreates a direct economic incentive to recycle more and to generateless waste. On the other hand, Nairobi residents still practice thetraditional approach in which residents pay for waste collectionthrough property taxes or a fixed fee, regardless of how much or howlittle trash they generate. The Massachusetts concept treats trashlike electricity, gas, and other utilities. Residents control howmuch they pay by controlling how much they throw away.
Secondlyis the “Producer-Take-Back” concept. Producer-Take-Back approachrequires manufacturers to take due obligation in disposing off theirproducts. Such initiative ensures that waste disposal costs are metby the manufacturer. Consequently, the manufacturer will begin todesign recyclable and biodegradable containers for their products.Contrary to the aggressive nature of the US, Kenya has gone ahead andadopted the concept rapidly changes are being witnessed.
E-Wasteis another remedy. It refers to the expiry of electronic devices tothe extent that they are no longer reusable. E-waste is on the riseespecially in the global waste stream. In the next 10 years, thelevels of e-waste will triple as more citizens of Nairobi andMassachusetts abandon old electronics in favor of emergingtechnology. Regrettably, a quarter of the e-waste gets recycled.Three quarters are dumped at landfills, where it leaks harmfulchemicals such as, mercury, lead and cadmium, and beryllium(Niaounakis2013). Nairobi though features considerably a small amount of electronicproducts thus the limited cases of electronic waste. Nonetheless, thecountry regularly becomes a dumpsite for electronic waste importedfrom the first world countries.
Legislationis another approach towards solving the pollution menace. Both citieshave enacted laws that seek to entrench the use of recyclablecontainers in the packaging line. The contravention of the lawsfurther comes with punitive penalties and fines to the respectivecompanies.
Comment on whether this solution(s) would be appropriate for your specific ‘problem’. In your answer, explain why and why not. (4 pts)
Byand large recycling is the best approach to the bottling industry.Recycling furthermore is the responsibility of everyone.Itis therefore an imperative that bottle assemblies strive to safeguardthe environment. Theirs should be the promotion of recycling ofbottled plastic containers and general sustainable management of theenvironment.
List and describe the two sources used to find this information. Provide the link and a short description of the source of information. In your short description try to identify whether the authors are unbiased or might be influenced to represent a particular side of this story. (4 pts)
Inches,A., & Whitehead, P. (2009). Theadventures of a plastic bottle: A story about recycling. New York: Little Simon.
Theauthors explore the recycling process of plastics bottles into ausable product. The intention of the writer is to inform and istherefore not biased in any way whatsoever. The authors’ focus onrecycling and its benefits to the environment as well aseconomically.
Niaounakis,M. (2013). Biopolymers:Reuse, recycling, and disposal.Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Thissource explores the benefits and drawbacks, environmental and socialimpacts and regulatory aspects of each recycling technology. Itexplores the different forms of recycling and degradation includinglife cycle analysis, with support of case studies from differentcountries. The source is unbiased and uses information from realcases to support their point.