# Integrating Science and Mathematics

INTEGRATING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS 10

IntegratingScience and Mathematics

Coursetitle.

Integratingscience and mathematics

Thisunit of study integrates science and the following Mathematicscontent decimals, fractions and percentages.

Standardsand objectives

Theunit will abide to the National Education Science Standards (N.S.E.S)and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (N.C.T.M)standards and will also align its goals and objectives with thesestandards. The following are the standards NSES and NCTM standardsand objectives of the study unit.

NSESstandards (Martin, 2012).

1. Science teaching standards

2. Standards for professional development for teachers of science

3. Assessment in science education

4. Science content standards

5. Science education program standards

6. Standards for science education systems

NCTMStandards

Theyare divided into two categories five process standards and fivecontent standards. The standards are:

1. Number and operations

2. Algebra

3. Geometry

4. Measurement

5. Data analysis and probability

6. Problem solving

7. Reasoning and proof

8. Communication

9. Connection

10. Representation (Romberg, 2004).

Learninggoals

1. The student should obtain a clear understanding of the science concepts.

2. The student should obtain a clear understanding of the mathematics content of fractions, decimals and percentages.

3. The student should understand the relationship between science and the mathematics contents of fractions, decimals and percentages.

4. The student should be able to apply the mathematics concepts of fractions, decimals and percentages to scientific use.

Learningobjectives: at the end of the study unit, the student should be ableto

1. Answer questions from the science contents of the study.

3. Use the knowledge acquired to reason in a logical manner problems that will be presented in class concerning science and Mathematics.

4. Analyze, solve and present any problems that are presented in class concerning science and the mathematics concepts of fractions, decimals and percentages.

5. Complete an assessment in the half way through the study that examines on contents learnt that far.

6. Complete an assessment test at the end of the study that will examine on contents of the whole study.

Materialsand resources

1. Textbooks

2. Internet

3. Four- figure mathematical tables.

Differentiationof instructions

Studentshave different needs and abilities and therefore, to ensure all thestudents clearly understand the contents of the unit of study, thefollowing differentiation methods will be used

Contentbased differentiation methods employed here will include givingtests to determine what different students know, breaking down thecontents of the unit into parts that the students can work with andusing broad instructions that can be understood by all the students.

Processbased differentiation the methods applied include providing avariety of materials that will stimulate different learningexperiences for the different groups of students, developing classactivities that enhance learning through other senses such as hearingand touch, making the said activities vary in terms of complexity,provide a medium through which any enquiries can be made and finallyconstantly grouping and regrouping students based on differentabilities.

Problemsolving and inquiry strategies

1. Model an inquiry process

2. Provide opportunities where the students themselves can observe, analyze and come up with queries concerning issues learnt.

3. Create hypothetical scenarios that will call upon the students to look into a problem and come up with a solution.

Thetwelve science processes

Thetwelve science processes are: observation, measurement,classification, quantification, inferring, predicting, identifyingand controlling variables, formulating and testing hypotheses,interpreting data, defining operations, experimenting and creatingmodels (Cain, 1984).

Concretemanipulative

1. Fraction strips

2. Counters

3. Rulers

Informaland formal assessments

1. Tests and quizzes

2. Discussions

3. Observation

Authenticand formative assessments

1. Standardized tests

2. Teacher feedback

StudentReflection

IntegratingScience and Mathematics Narrative

Welcometo . This unit of study is aimedat increasing the learner’s knowledge in science and themathematics concepts of fractions, decimals and percentages.Furthermore, the unit also aims at helping the learner have theability to apply the knowledge of fractions, decimals and percentagesin scientific processes. It is a three part course that will firstdeal with the science part, then the mathematics part and finallytackle an integration of the two fields of study.

Thescience part of the study will concern itself with the twelveprocesses of science, which are: observation which involves usingsensory abilities to gain information about an object or occurrence,inference which is making certain decisions about the object youobserved based on the observations. The next process is measuring,which basically entails describing dimensions of an object. Communication is the use of words or any other means to tell peopleabout the object. Classifying is grouping the object with others ofsimilar characteristics and predicting is predetermining outcomesrelating to the object when it is subjected to differentenvironmental factors. There are the basic processes but there areothers, which are more complicated.They include identifying andcontrolling variables, formulating and testing hypotheses,interpreting data, defining operations, experimenting and creatingmodels.

Thesescience parts of the unit will be integrated with the Mathematicsconcepts of fractions, decimals and percentages. These terms are allused in mathematics to describe part of a whole/ a representativesection that is part of a larger section.

Theunit will then combine the knowledge of the two and show how themathematics knowledge can be applied to the scientific processes thathave been mentioned. For example the use of percentages inclassification, the use of fractions in data analysis, use ofdecimals in testing hypotheses and the use of any of the three indefining operations. As expected by the state, the unit will followthe National Education Science Standards (N.S.E.S) and the NationalCouncil of Teachers of Mathematics (N.C.T.M) standards. Given thedominance of the science content of the unit, all the NSES standardswill be followed. NCTM standards that will apply to include numberof and operations where the unit will make sure the students have aclear understanding of numbers and the operations that are involvedin Mathematics such as addition, multiplication, subtraction anddivision. Problem solving, reasoning &amp proof, communication,connection and representation standards will also apply to this unitin that the unit will equip the students with the knowledge that isrequired to solve problems in this field, it should give the studentsan acceptable level of reasoning abilities and also the students’representation of the mathematical solutions should be in line withthe acceptable standards. For example, a problem in the unit mayinvolve using the science skill of observation to determine thenumber of female organisms and present the information in form of afraction or as a percentage of the whole population. The standardsdescribed above will govern how the unit should allow presentation ofsuch answers.

Thematerials that will be used in the twelve scientific course includerelevant science text books that talk on the twelve processes ofScience. These include Teaching Science to Every Student by JohnSettlage and Classifying Science by Rick Szostak. Books that will beused to learn about the Mathematics concept are two editions of DavidAdler’s Fractions, Decimals, and Percents. Teaching methods willprimarily entail class sessions, but laboratory experiments will alsobe used in the students’ learning experience. Formal assessmenttests will be composed of class tests and quizzes, which willcontribute to twenty percent of the whole grade, assignments willhave a contribution of ten percent and finally a summative test atthe end of the study unit will account for the remaining seventypercent. All aspects that will have been taught in the study unitwill be examined through one of the means mentioned above.

Concretemanipulatives that will be used when teaching this unit includedfraction strips, counters and rulers. This will be used mostly forthe Mathematics part to explain fractions and percentages. Theconcrete manipulatives have been chosen because they are the mostappropriate to the topics that will be studied given that they can beused to directly explain the concept of fractions (N.T.C.M, 1954).Apart from using concrete manipulatives, the teacher will also employthe tool of teacher feedback to ensure that the students grasp theknowledge in the unit. This will involve addressing specific issuesaffecting different students either in class sessions or afterassessments. The teacher will also employ specific problem-solvingand inquiry methods to help the student learn. The inquiry processhere will be in such a way that the student can either approach theteacher directly with questions, or can write them down and pass themto the teacher. For example if during the class session the studentdid not understand what observation was, he or she may raise theirhand to ask or write down the questions so that they are addressed inthe next class.

Thelast teaching method that will be employed in this unit study will bedifferentiation. This will be done mainly through grouping. Followingthe various assessment tests that will be done, the teacher will beable to determine the strengths and weaknesses of different studentsin various sections and therefore, group them accordingly. There willbe content based differentiation too but this will be in minimalamounts. This is because the process based differentiation isconsidered to easier to implement when compared to other forms suchas content based (Willoughby, 2005).

Themethods selected for the different operations in this the unit ofstudy plan have been done in adherence to the set standards and areall aimed at making the learning experience easy and effective forboth students and teachers. The duration of time that will be takento teach the course will be outlined in the lesson plan together withwhen each topic will be discussed. The time and types of assessmentwill also be shown in the unit plan.

Conclusion

Writingyour own unit plan as compared to adapt one that has been alreadymade is better for the teacher because he or she is in control of thecontents of the unit, arranges the best times for the unit and isgenerally more dedicated. The creation above is an integration ofscience and the mentioned selected mathematics topics. We have seen abrief description of the unit, and a proposed method of teaching thesame.

References

Cain,S. E., &amp Evans, J. M. (1984). Sciencing.Columbus, Ohio: Merrill. Print.

JenniferWilloughby, (2005). Differentiating Instruction: Meeting StudentsWhere They Are.Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, New York.Internet.http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/di_meeting.phtml.

Martin,D. J. (2012). Elementaryscience methods: A constructivist approach.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Print.

NationalCouncil of Teachers of Mathematics. (1954). Thearithmetic teacher.Washington, DC: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Romberg,T. A. (2004). Standards-basedmathematics assessment in middle school: Rethinking classroompractice.New York: Teachers College Press. Print.