Human Immunodeficiency Virus


HumanImmunodeficiency Virus

HumanImmunodeficiency Virus

HIVstands for . The virus remains in theindividual`s body until the person dies. Currently, scientists allover the world have not been able to find an HIV vaccine or cure.However, there exists the treatment that can help individualssuffering from the HIV virus to live much longer and enjoy life muchlonger. Human immunodeficiency virus causes continuous failure of thehuman immune system. Weakening of the immune system allows forcancers and other opportunistic diseases to thrive. The paper willevaluate the various aspects of the Human immune deficiency virus.

HIVinfection is categorized into three stages that have differentsymptoms. They include acute infection, clinical latency and AIDS.The initial period that follows contraction of HIV is widely known asprimary HIV, acute HIV or acute retroviral syndrome. At this stage,most individuals develop mononucleosis or influenza-like illness.Symptoms that occur most commonly include inflammation of the throat,fever, sores in the mouth and genitals, headaches, a rash. Alsoimportantly, gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, vomitingnausea or diarrhea may occur. Additionally neurological symptoms orGuillain-Barre syndrome may occur.

HIVis transmitted through various ways: exposure to infected body fluidsor tissues, sexual contact, mother to child transmission duringpregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. No risk exists when anindividual is exposed to nasal secretions, urine, sweat, saliva,feces and sputum as long as they are not contaminated with blood.

Continuoususe of protection reduces the rate of HIV infection amongst the humanpopulation. Application of a vaginal gel containing tenofovir justbefore having sex reduces the HIV infection risk by 40%. Alsoimportantly, circumcision plays a great role in reducing theprobability of contracting HIV by 38% in heterosexual men. The WorldHealth Organization has acknowledged and recommended circumcision ofmen as a method of reducing the HIV contraction rate. Additionally,utilization of Programs meant to prevent HIV transmission frommothers to kids during birth, have led to 94-99% reduction in HIVcontraction amongst young kids. The programs involve the utilizationof a combination of various techniques that include the use ofantiviral drugs during the pregnancy period, bottle-feeding ratherthan breastfeeding. Also importantly, as of 2011 there was noeffective medicine or treatment for the HIV virus. However, thereexist drugs that aid in the reduction of the transmission of thevirus.

Complicationsthat arise due to HIV virus include wasting, neurological, cancer andkidney complications. Wasting syndrome is characterized withunprecedented loss of weight usually accompanied by chronic weakness,fever and diarrhea. Neurological Complexities arise due to HIV damageto an individual’s nerve cell that lead to forgetfulness,depression, anxiety, trouble walking, and dementia. All these aspectsinhibit an individual mental functionality. Kidney complicationsarise due to an inflammation of the tiny filters in individuals.Kidneys help get rid of waste and excess fluids in an individual’sbloodstream. Also importantly, Kaposi`s sarcoma is often acomplication that is related to individuals suffering from HIV.Kaposi’s sarcoma is characterized with purple or pink lesions on anindividual mouth or skin. Additionally, Kaposi`s sarcoma can alsocause harm to an individual`s internal organs like the lungs anddigestive tract. Additionally, Lymphomas is a type of cancer thatoriginates in the white blood cells and usually first appears in yourlymph nodes. This type of cancer is common in HIV positiveindividuals.

Centerfor Disease Control and prevention in the US approximates that about2 billion individuals that are above 14 years are infected and livingwith the HIV infection. 15.8% who are unaware of the HIV infectionstatus. This fact further propels the HIV infection rate higher andhigher around the globe. Additionally, the last ten years hasexperienced a dramatic increase in HIV infections with over 50, 000new infections each year. These figures are quite scary in today’sworld where there is a lot of access to the HIV virus information.

Understandingthe nature of the HIV epidemics includes comprehending the structuraland social determinants. Understanding these elements is vital todeveloping and implementing an effective HIV prevention program.Health determinants refer to factors that hugely contribute to anindividual`s health status(Rambaut, Posada, Crandall, &amp Holmes, 2oo4).These factors include socioeconomic, biological behavioral orpsychosocial. Most Scientists recognize five determinants of healthof the population. They include biology and gene for instance age andsex, Health behaviors like unprotected sex, alcohol use and use ofneedles. In addition to that, the social environment like income,discrimination gender is a health determinant. For instance,individuals living in densely populated areas lack access to qualityhealth care services, this factor may propel the rate of HIVinfection further.

TheEpidemiologic Triangle is a scientific model that has helped instudying various health problems. The epidemiologic triangle helpsscientists, lecturers and students understand the communicablediseases much better. The triangle helps the students identify thehosts, the agents, and the environment under which the virus thrives.The Triangle has three vertices that include Agent, Host and theEnvironment. The agent refers to the disease causing element theHost refers to the body, cell or organism that houses the agent. Thehost enables the agent to thrive and become harmful to anindividual’s health. The environment refers to factors bothinternal and external that make the agent thrive better. In HIV, Theagent factors include the cellular attraction, HIV viral subtypes,CD4 cells, Langerhans, macrophages. The environmental factors includeSocial, cultural &amp political milieu affecting, Sexual practices,Patterns of partnering, Commercial sex, Gender relations,Contraceptive choice, Substance abuse, Education and Economicresources. The host factors include foreskin, CD4 cells, macrophageslocated in oral, urethral, Langerhans, cervicovaginal, and rectalepithelium.

Thenursing community around the globe has contributed immensely towardsthe HIV virus fight. The Nursing community has been involved intaking care for patients in hospital units and their homes. Theyprovide information and education to other nurses and patients. Thenursing Community care provides counseling, social care and supportto individuals infected with the HIV virus(Orgaanization, 2007).Additionally, they play a huge role in sharing skills and Knowledgethat helps create an environment that engages people to adoptprotective and supportive behaviors’. Also more importantly, thenursing community has been involved in relaying feedback to thedoctor.

Incurbing the HIV menace, the world health organization developed theantiretroviral therapy that aided in slowing down the mortality rateand HIV progression in most countries. The antiretroviral therapy hashugely been successful in curbing the HIV transmission in most partsof the world. Additionally, the world health organization haspartnered with most of the media stakeholders, hospitals andgovernment agencies to spread the HIV virus gospel. Such partnershipshave helped educate the masses about the harmful effects of the HIVvirus. Additionally, CDC has tried to improve the conditions of dailylife as the individual circumstances in which individuals are born,work and live. It has tackled the unequal distribution of resourcesthat are the drivers of the daily local and global conditions oflife. These programs help address the social and economic aspectsthat translate to increase infections amongst individuals. Forexample, there is a high HIV prevalence in densely populated regionsdue to the harsh economic and social aspects(Pebody, 2012).Therefore by addressing the social and economical aspects that makeindividuals behave the way they do, will aid in the reduction of HIVtransmission or contraction.

Inconclusion, HIV is a global pandemic. Close to 2 billion individualssuffers from the HIV virus. There have been over 2 million deathsthat have a direct relation with the HIV virus since the year 2009.Therefore, HIV virus is an epidemic that governments, the public,health institutions and agencies in order to curb the high level ofHIV infections. Most areas that need attention include the social,cultural, economic aspects of an individual’s life. Also moreimportantly, a lot of social education needs to be done in order toprovide information to all individuals. Education will help reducethe HIV infection due to individual ignorance. Additionally, emphasisshould be laid in implementation of the preventive program across theglobe. Preventive programs are cheaper in comparison to the treatmentof the . Lastly, the government andhealthcare stakeholders should invest a lot in the HIV virus researchin order to come up with a vaccine or treatment.


Orgaanization,W. H. (2007). WHOcase for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunologicalclassification of HIV-related diseases in adults and children.Retrieved November 4, 2014, from

Pebody,R. (2012). HIVstigma &amp discrimination.Retrieved November 4, 2014, from

Rambaut,A., Posada, D., Crandall, K. A., &amp Holmes, E. C. (2oo4, January).Thecauses and consequences of HIV evolution.Retrieved November 4, 2014, from