GlobalHealth in United States
Globalisationaffects all human beings including their well-being and health. Forsome years now, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has affected the lives of mostpeople and their welfare (Parker,2012).In addition, the trend of finding the solution of these global healthchallenges has as well increased. Various groups and internationalorganisations have recently emerged to address the HIV/AIDS as aglobal health challenge. Unfortunately, the spread of HIV/AIDS andprevalence have continued to increase despite the increase of healthinitiative that educates people about the disease. Indeed, most ofthese initiatives have spread even to the poorest and mostmarginalised regions in the world. Accordingly, the HIV/AIDS epidemicis increasing and expanding worldwide. Unluckily, the poorest regionsin the world are the most affected due to poverty, famine, otherdiseases, political and economic instability, poor healthinfrastructure that are few and far-reaching from the patients, amongother reasons. Regrettably, the numbers of people contracting thedisease is high than the number of people under medication.Therefore, the world will remain behind the epidemic.
Accordingto Panford,Nyaney,Amoahand Aidoo(2011), health sectors are emerging to play their roles to preventfurther spread of the HIV/AIDS, search for treatment, as well assupport and take care of the patients. HIV/AIDS is part of the globalhealth agenda as well as AIDS response. The AIDS response consists ofimproving health systems and the sectors that deal with healthsolutions like the law, education, and human rights.
TheStatus of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic
Accordingto research conducted in recent times, there are more than thirtymillion people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide (Parker,2012).Among them, half of them are women, and two-thirds lives insub-Saharan Africa. Every minute, about five people contract thedisease three of them being young people and children. Additionally,more than five thousand people die daily from the HIV/AIDS and otherAIDS-related diseases. Sorrowfully, the number of orphans is rapidlyincreasing with over ten millions orphans in the sub-Saharan Africa.
Since2000, there has been a significant progress on the various ways tominimise the spread and the effects of AIDS. For instance, there iscontinuous delivery of HIV services to millions of patients livingwith the virus, especially to the middle-income and low-incomecountries. Currently, more than three million people living with AIDSare on antiretroviral treatment. By 2007, the number of new HIV/AIDSinfection had decreased to two million from three million in 2005(Parker,2012).Correspondingly, new infection among children has also increased dueto improved services during delivery. Young people have few partnersand are using condom to prevent as a preventive measure. Luckily,children orphaned by HIV/AIDS disease have access to protection andsocial support. Surprisingly, these substantial gains have beenachieved in these tough economic gains.
HealthPolicies in Ghana
Justlike any other nation in the world, Ghana also suffers from HIV/AIDS.Up to date, more than one hundred thousands of the Ghana populationare suffering from this deadly virus. Ghana has implemented rigorousefforts to fight with the high rise of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Ghana hastwo broad policy documents, the National Strategic Framework onHIV/AIDS, and the Draft National HIV/AIDS/STI policy (Panfordet al. 2011).They both define the role and the responsibility of differentministries, departments, and agencies in fighting against the virus.The policies define the importance of National Strategic Frameworkthat mobilises all sectors in the implementation and advocacy of thepolicies.
TheNational Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS Policy
Themain aim of the National Strategic Framework on HIV/AID policy is toprevent and mitigate the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS to thenation, communities, and individuals. Coovadiaand Hadingham(2010) states that the policy focuses on reducing new infections,improve health services, reduce vulnerability, as well as come upwith multi-disciplinary and multi-sector institutional framework. Thekey components of this policy include:
Support policies and laws
Expand multi-sectors approach
Ensure adequate resource mobilisation
Provide education on HIV/AIDS
TheDraft National HIV/AIDS/STI Policy
Themain aim of the Draft National HIV/AIDS/STI policy is to create afriendly environment, give support, and ensure a sustained politicalcommitment against HIV/AIDS/STIs through advocacy (Kates,Michaud, Wexler, and Valentine, 2013).In addition, the policy create behavioural changes in the sexual andreproductive health, reduce discrimination and stigmatisationassociated with the virus, reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS patients,and minimise the effects of the virus especially on the mortality andmorbidity.
In1980, the Ghana government responded to the HIV/AIDS epidemic thatwas rapidly increasing. It came up with the National AIDS/STD ControlProgram to synchronize the state response to the epidemic. Thisprogram later introduced a Short Term Plan (STP) to prevent andcontrol the spread of HIV/AIDS virus that operated for only two years(Kateset. al., 2013).In addition, it also introduced Medium Term Plan with the samefunctions as Short Term Plan, which operated for five years.
Initially,only the ministry of health was responsible for implementing programsto deal with health issues. As time goes by, other public and privatesectors, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) programs andnon-governmental organisations (NGOs) are also taking part in theimplementation. Currently, the draft national HIV/AIDS/STI policy isstill functional and its mains objectives are
Ensure consistent programme of education and information about HIV/AIDS among the youth and the public.
Minimise as much as possible the impact of mortality and morbidity that are as a result HIV/AIDS among the general population.
Protect and upheld the basic human rights of the people living with HIV/AIDS.
Provide medical and social care to people infected with the HIV/AIDS virus.
Ensure people infected with HIV/AIDS have access to economic and social opportunities.
Reduce discrimination and stigmatisation, vulnerability to infection, as well as minimise the negative impact of the epidemic in the social-economic sector.
Ensure people who are vulnerable to the HIV/AIDS receive adequate attention.
Inbrief, the draft policy puts more emphasis on education andinformation about the virus leading to behavioural change, andadvocating on the use of condoms to limit the spread of the virus.
Problemand the Purpose of the Study
Themain problem and the purpose of the article “AIDSand Global Health”are to investigate the relationship between the HIV/AIDS and theeconomic and social development and the most effective response ofthe HIV/AIDS epidemic (UNAIDS,2014).
Thearticle defines HIV/AIDS as a most serious problem in most countriesworldwide. Already, there are more than thirty millions people livingwith the virus. The article also discusses the various ways that thevirus is transmitted from one person to another. HIV/AIDS patientshave the greatest role to play in minimizing the spread of the virus(UNAIDS,2014).They can improve the lives qualities through positive behaviouralchanges, and prevent further infections.
Thearticle uses systematic literature review from the World HealthOrganisation (WHO). Most information from the article was from theHIV sentinel surveillance data that the writer used to estimate HIVprevalence. UNAIDS(2014), presented The ANC Sentinel Surveillance data between 1992 and2000 in a table. Later, UNAIDSuses this data to do analysis and draw conclusion.
Theanalysis showed that women living with HIV/AIDS had lower fertilitycompared to those without infection. Correspondingly, women livingwith HIV/AIDS become pregnant less often than negative women do. Thesentinel surveillance data also showed that there are higher chancesof virus spreading rapidly in the future.
CriticalAppraisal of an International Policy and Health Care System Comparedto the US Policy and Health Care System
Currently,United States offers the largest help to fight HIV/AIDS in themiddle-income and low-income countries in the world. Nevertheless, italso has its own policies to fight the virus. For example, in 2003,United States came up with Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDSdocument (Porter,2011).The document demand the government to set targets for AIDS- relatedpolicy, finances, and program, as well as advance its responses toAIDS epidemics. The document also stimulates the government toconduct researches on the disease in order to monitor its progress.The strategy also aims to reduce HIV infections, reduce HIV-relatedhealth problems, and increase access to health care. These policiesare similar to those of Ghana since they all work toward minimisingthe spread of the disease, and providing health care to the infectedpeople.
Relevancefor Nursing/ Advance Practise Nursing
Theemergence of the HIV/AIDS disease has contributed a lot the study ofnursing and medicine. Before handling any HIV patient, a nurse or adoctor should have adequate information about the disease. Thesestudies also advice the nurses when to place a patient onantiretroviral treatment, as well as create mid-level cadre andworkforce measures.
Coovadia,H. M., & Hadingham, J. (2010). HIV/AIDS: global trends, globalfunds and delivery bottlenecks. and health, 1(1),13.
Kates,J., Michaud, J., Wexler, A., & Valentine, A. (2013). Mapping thedonor landscape in global health: HIV/AIDS.
Panford,S., Nyaney, M. O., Amoah, S. O., & Aidoo, N. G. (2011). Usingfolk media in HIV/AIDS prevention in rural Ghana. AmericanJournal of Public Health, 91(10),1559-1562.
Parker,R. (2012). The global HIV/AIDS pandemic, structural inequalities, andthe politics of international health. AmericanJournal of Public Health, 92(3),343-347.
Porter,R. W. (2011). HIV/AIDS IN GHANA. GlobalAIDS Policy,90.
UNAIDS,U. (2014). AIDS and global health.