Final Exam-Sport Nutrition Question 1

Final Exam-Sport Nutrition


Age: 25.6 ± 3.1 years with the Height: 191 ± 6 cm

Stage 1 VO2max and Fat Determination

Stage 2 VO2max and Fat Determination

Stage 3 VO2max and Fat Determination

Weight: 87.3 ± 8.1 kg

42.3± 3.3 mL/Kg

44.5 ± 2.2 mL/Kg

44.5 ± 2.2 mL/Kg

BMI: 23.9±1.7

From p&lt0.02, to p&lt0.001

Not Significant

Not Significant


a)The papers in thereference section

b)From the papers you identify, select 5 to collate into a referencelist that would allow a colleague to easily locate the papers. Youmay use any recognised format for the reference list.

(Incorporatedin the references in bold- References used in article written)


In carrying out this search,numerous databases were used in finding out the role of protein andexercise in supporting changes in body composition. These databaseswere mainly those published up to June 2014 and the included PubMedwhich is the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes ofHealth, Scopus, and Science Direct. In carrying out this search, anumber of combinations of keywords were used and they included:nutrition, intake, energy, carbohydrates, body, composition,proteins, fat, lipids, soccer, fat, food preferences, playing role,exercise, body and composition. The search also involved thebibliographies of the retrieved articles and journals in order to getthe additional materials for reference.

Among the peer-reviewed articlesand journals that were selected, those included in the search coveredthe following: a) were published from the year 2005 onwards(b) thedata from the days of dietary recording at least was part of it (c)the was an indicator that the individuals had assessed dietary intakethrough the records of foods that were weighed or even the estimatedfood records. Putting into consideration all of the aboverequirements, the search involved 28 peer-reviewed articles andjournals and there were 9 of them that met the general standards ofthe search to be included.



Ingesting of carbohydrate richfood, during exercise to calm exercise caused immune depression mayaffect to some level the body functioning (Mojtahedi, et. al., 2011).Physiological stress that might be extreme to the body in people whodo heavy exercise is inevitable. It’s mostly connected withshort-term immune depression and exposure of contracting infectivity,in the upper respiratory tract infection (Nassis, et. al., 2005). Tosustain immune function in persons doing strenuous exercises, thereis need to consume an equal to more than six percent of carbohydratesduring a stretched work out.

The convolution of the immunesystems in humans comprises a multiplicity of physical fundamentals,such as interactive modulators, cell types and hormones. They ensurea balanced diet and proper nutrition, promoting the immune system ofan individual, to mental immune competence. The modulators coordinateto protect the human body against pathogens, which are likely tocause diseases (Nassis, et. al., 2005).

However, on the other hand,inadequate nutrition, environmental stress, physical, insufficientnourishment, psychological and variance in resting hours may alterthe immune system of an individual during exercise leading toimmunodepression (Mojtahedi, et. al., 2011). As a matter of fact,individuals doing strainers exercises tend to depend on such dieteticstrategies, to keep up with immune-competence inhibiting ill health(Zorba &amp Karacabey, 2011).

In situations when individualsget involved in strainers exercises, taking of more carbohydrates,while ignoring proteins, can lead to deteriorating of the person’simmune system. Supplements are neither exceptional in lessening thebody’s immune system, hence exposing the individual to higherdisease causing pathogens. Water to balance the body’selectrolytes, proteins and Glucose help the body meet important andessential immune system. Nutritional demands hence, promote asuccessful body (Zorba &amp Karacabey, 2011).

Glucose plays a major role infueling substrates for macrophages, lymphocytes and macrophages. Thisis because of its high metabolic rates. Stress hormones, which occurduring a stressful exercise like norepinephrine and epinephrine,depend on glucose concentration in the body to enable them respondactively and effectively to the effect of stress (Zorba &ampKaracabey, 2011). Intake of carbohydrates in a stressful workouthelps the body to attenuate exercise induced increase, of totalleukocyte subsets, such as neutrophils and monocytes (Phillips,, 2005). Through research, scientific reports reveal low levels ofattenuate lymphocyopenia, during recovery of the person while inothers low lymphocytes after the exercise (Weigle, et. al., 2005).

In conclusion SUP and KLA in NKcell, counts do not have significant variation in the individual’sbody. Equally, significant decrease of NK cells, cytotoxic, withactivity decreased, in carbohydrate supplements decreases instressful exercise. Extensively, contradicting study results,attributed to carbohydrate intake, attenuates to the response ofparticular cytokines like IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1ra excepting, TNF-αand IL-8 (Phillips, et, al., 2005). The dosage level of carbohydratesinvestigated to check if an alteration of the amount of attenuatingeffects of immunological markers done concludes that, quantitydoesn’t matter at all. Intake of at least six percent ofcarbohydrates during a workout will be adequate to attenuate hormonaland immune response in the body of an individual.






Juice Plus acts as gap filler ingetting nutrients to the body of a wrestler. It is effectiveantioxidant making it advisable for use by wrestlers. However, use ofJuice Plus is prohibited by WADA (Bowers, 2009). Ornithine playsimportant roles in a body of wrestler as it aids in removal of bodywastes and boost the energy levels. It is crucial in the urea cycle.Beta-alanine supplements increase the carnosine content of themuscles thus boosting the total muscle buffer capacity. Also, itdelays the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Ornithine and beta-alaninehave not been documented to be accepted by WADA (Bowers, 2009).


Within the hot environments suchas Qatar, exercise capacities of the players are greatly reducedgiven that the body temperatures are raised by environmentalconditions and the production of metabolic heat. The heat gain isdisrupted thus players are highly dehydrated (Shirreffs, 2010). Theperformance of players is greatly reduced given that temperaturesabove 38.6°C leads to exhaustion (Mohr et al., 2010). Theperformance further is affected by skin temperatures, muscletemperatures with well-trained persons tolerating temperatures ofbetween 39.2°C and 40.3°C (Mohr et al., 2010). Health of players isat risk given that cardiovascular experiences limitations in thefacilitation of oxygen delivery to the active skeletal muscle whileat the same time sustaining enough thermoregulatory outputs (Onate,Beck &amp Van Lunen, 2007). The heart rate and blood lactate levelsare also likely to increase especially when not exercising (Castle etal., 2006).

Owing to the physiologicaldemands of football performance, the combinations of the abovediscussed factors that are linked to maximal and sub-maximal exercisefatigue play a crucial role in determining the reduction of distancecovered during play time as well as increase in cardiovascularexercise (Özgünen et al., 2010). The negative effects inperformance of the players are likely to be very evident in the gamecompared to temperate climates (Shirreffs, 2010).

In high temperature areas such asQatar, there performances of players are likely to be hampered withdue to dehydration. It is documented that two per cent dehydrationdecreases physical performance by 20% while the sweat rate of thefootball player is two liters for every 90-minute game (Godek,Bartolozzi &amp Godek, 2005). Owing to the dehydration, the mentalacuity of individuals is likely to be affected thus negativelyimpacting on their performance.


Aucouturier, J., Duche, P., &ampTimmons, B. W. (2011). Metabolic flexibility and obesity in childrenand youth. Obesity Reviews, 12(5), e44-e53.

Bowers, L. D. (2009). Theanalytical chemistry of drug monitoring in athletes. Annual review ofanalytical chemistry, 2, 485-507.

Brocherie, F., Girard, O.,Farooq, A., &amp Millet, G. P. (2013). Influence of environmentaltemperature on home advantage in Qatari international soccer matches.Performance Analysis of Sport IX, 39.

Buchheit, M., Voss, S. C., Nybo,L., Mohr, M., &amp Racinais, S. (2011). Physiological andperformance adaptations to an in‐seasonsoccer camp in the heat: Associations with heart rate and heart ratevariability. Scandinavian journal of medicine &amp science insports, 21(6), e477-e485.

Calder, P. C. (2006).Branched-chain amino acids and immunity. The Journal of nutrition,136(1), 288S-293S.

Castle, P. C., Macdonald, A. L.,Philp, A., Webborn, A., Watt, P. W., &amp Maxwell, N. S. (2006).Precooling leg muscle improves intermittent sprint exerciseperformance in hot, humid conditions. Journal of applied physiology,100(4), 1377-1384.

Campbell, W. W., &amp Leidy, H.J. (2007). Dietary protein and resistance training effects on muscleand body composition in older persons. Journal of the AmericanCollege of Nutrition, 26(6), 696S-703S.

Casa, D. J., Clarkson, P. M., &ampRoberts, W. O. (2005). American College of Sports Medicine roundtableon hydration and physical activity: consensus statements. Currentsports medicine reports, 4(3), 115-127.

DeBerardinis, R. J., Lum, J. J.,Hatzivassiliou, G., &amp Thompson, C. B. (2008). The biology ofcancer: metabolic reprogramming fuels cell growth and proliferation.Cell metabolism, 7(1), 11-20.

Godek, S. F., Bartolozzi, A. R.,&amp Godek, J. J. (2005). Sweat rate and fluid turnover in Americanfootball players compared with runners in a hot and humidenvironment. British journal of sports medicine, 39(4), 205-211.

Layman, D. K., Evans, E.,Baum, J. I., Seyler, J., Erickson, D. J., &amp Boileau, R. A.(2005). Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on bodycomposition during weight loss in adult women. The Journal ofnutrition, 135(8), 1903-1910.

Li, P., Yin, Y. L., Li, D., WooKim, S., &amp Wu, G. (2007). Amino acids and immune function.British Journal of Nutrition, 98(02), 237-252.

Maughan, R. J., Shirreffs, S. M.,Ozgünen, K. T., Kurdak, S. S., Ersöz, G., Binnet, M. S., &ampDvorak, J. (2010). Living, training and playing in the heat:challenges to the football player and strategies for coping withenvironmental extremes. Scandinavian journal of medicine &ampscience in sports, 20(s3), 117-124.

Mohr, M., Mujika, I.,Santisteban, J., Randers, M. B., Bischoff, R., Solano, R., … &ampKrustrup, P. (2010). Examination of fatigue development in elitesoccer in a hot environment: a multi‐experimentalapproach. Scandinavian journal of medicine &amp science in sports,20(s3), 125-132.

Mojtahedi, M. C., Thorpe, M.P., Karampinos, D. C., Johnson, C. L., Layman, D. K., Georgiadis, J.G., &amp Evans, E. M. (2011). The effects of a higher protein intakeduring energyrestriction on changesin body composition and physical function in olderwomen. The Journals ofGerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences,glr120.

Nassis, G. P., Papantakou, K.,Skenderi, K., Triandafillopoulou, M., Kavouras, S. A., Yannakoulia,M., … &amp Sidossis, L. S. (2005). Aerobic exercise trainingimproves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, bodyfat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obesegirls. Metabolism, 54(11), 1472-1479.

Onate, J. A., Beck, B. C., &ampVan Lunen, B. L. (2007). On-field testing environment and BalanceError Scoring System performance during preseason screening ofhealthy collegiate baseball players. Journal of athletic training,42(4), 446.

Özgünen, K. T., Kurdak, S. S.,Maughan, R. J., Zeren, C., Korkmaz, S., Yazιcι, Z., … &ampDvorak, J. (2010). Effect of hot environmental conditions on physicalactivity patterns and temperature response of football players.Scandinavian journal of medicine &amp science in sports, 20(s3),140-147.

Phillips, S. M., Hartman, J.W., &amp Wilkinson, S. B. (2005). Dietary protein to supportanabolism with resistance exercise in young men. Journal of theAmerican College of Nutrition, 24(2), 134S-139S.

Shirreffs, S. M. (2010).Hydration: Special issues for playing football in warm and hotenvironments. Scandinavian journal of medicine &amp science insports, 20(s3), 90-94.

Shirreffs, S. M., Sawka, M. N., &ampStone, M. (2006). Water and electrolyte needs for football trainingand match-play. Journal of sports sciences, 24(07), 699-707.

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Taylor, L., &amp Rollo, I.(2014). IMPACT OF ALTITUDE AND HEAT ON FOOTBALL PERFORMANCE. SportsScience, 27(131), 1-9.

Weigle, D. S., Breen, P. A.,Matthys, C. C., Callahan, H. S., Meeuws, K. E., Burden, V. R., &ampPurnell, J. Q. (2005). A high-protein diet induces sustainedreductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weightdespite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelinconcentrations. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 82(1),41-48.

Zorba, E., Cengiz, T., &ampKaracabey, K. (2011). Exercise training improves body composition,blood lipid profile and serum insulin levels in obese children.Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51(4), 664.



Aucouturier, J., Duche, P., &ampTimmons, B. W. (2011). Metabolic flexibility and obesity in childrenand youth. Obesity Reviews, 12(5), e44-e53.

Campbell, W. W., &amp Leidy, H.J. (2007). Dietary protein and resistance training effects on muscleand body composition in older persons. Journal of the AmericanCollege of Nutrition, 26(6), 696S-703S.

Raguso, C. A., Kyle, U.,Kossovsky, M. P., Roynette, C., Paoloni-Giacobino, A., Hans, D., &ampPichard, C. (2006). A 3-year longitudinal study on body compositionchanges in the elderly: role of physical exercise. ClinicalNutrition, 25(4), 573-580.