Comparison Matrix

College of Doctoral Studies 6


Article 1

Article 2

Article 3


Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter?

Wright &amp Pandey

The Effect Of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles on the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel

Emery &amp Barker

Persistent GCU Library Link

Purpose of the Study

What is the author’s rationale for selecting this topic? Does he build a strong case?

To test existing paradigms regarding transformational leadership. The authors suggest that public organizations are not as bureaucratic as stereotypically believed and that the performance measures in place support higher levels of transformational leadership in these organizations than might be expected based on their hierarchical structures.

The author builds a plausible argument based on the need for followers to be flexible in order for a leader to motivate them beyond satisfactory performance. In addition, the structure and controls in place for public organizations might impede the effectiveness of a transformational leader.

To test the effects of transformational and transactional factors about leadership on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

The authors found out that transformational factors of intellectual stimulation, charisma, and individual consideration are highly correlated with the organizational commitment and job satisfaction than transactional factors.

The authors also notes that leader charisma highly predicts the employee attitude than other paradigms and should be highly used in selecting or training the leaders in service providing sectors.

The article noted that transactional leadership style is based on legitimacy and bureaucratic authority while transformational leadership style motivates the subjected followers through appealing to a moral values and higher ideals.

Research Question(s)

What question(s) does the author present?

The more hierarchical an organization’s authority structure, the lower the reported practice of transformational leadership behaviors.

The weaker the lateral/upward communication in an organization, the lower the reported practice of transformational leadership behaviors.

The greater organizational formalization (measured as [3a] procurement red tape and [3b] human resource red tape), the lower the reported practice of

transformational leadership behaviors.

The more an organization’s structure impedes the establishment of extrinsic

reward-performance contingencies (here measured as human resource red tape), the higher the reported practice of transformational leadership behaviors.

The use of organizational performance measures will decrease the reported

transformational leadership behaviors.

The higher the competition, the more the companies focuses on customer satisfaction.

The commitment of the organization is found to reflect the employee’s involvement and identification within a particular organization, which influences fair customer satisfaction.

Whether transformational and transactional leadership is more correlated with positive employee attitudes.

Whether leadership correlates more with job satisfaction and organizational commitment

Sample Population(s)

What group(s) is/are being studied?

1,322 high-level public administrators in municipalities exceeding 50,000 residents.

77 branch managers and 308 tellers from regional banking organizations. 47 store managers and 188 checkers from one national food chain.


What are the limitations of the study?Why can it only encompass so much?

One limitation might be that the average age of the respondents was 50 years.

Others include:

Mostly Caucasian

Many jurisdictions had only 3 respondents, which might not be representative of the opinions of other direct reports.

A reduced number of questions were used to identify transformational leadership to keep the survey short. Possibly causing false identification of transformational leaders.

Transformational leadership might not be the result of less hierarchical organizations, it might cause them. There is not a way to prove which came first.

The results might be indicate only of the 205 local governments studied, not other public organizations.

The use of fewer male branch managers as participants as compared to female participants may jeopardize the results needed due to gender imbalance.

Using four tellers at each bank and four checkout personnel from each store may not represent the opinions of other employees in the bank.

In addition, selecting the participants in a random method may decrease the probability of responses given since it may result in selection of unwilling participant.

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