Mostof the ancient monuments and structures were usually built with theaim of using them for specific functions. Besides, the monuments andbuildings had different influences on the society. In thisassignment, the Greek Parthenon, the Roman Pantheon, Palladio’sVilla Rotunda, and graves’ public service building will be comparedand contrasted. A difference in their appearance, function,influences on each, and their reflection of their respectivesocieties will be discussed.
TheGreekParthenon has no absolute straight lines,which is critical in bestowing a fine organic character to ageometric structure (Beard57).The peristyle columns taper on a slight arc as they come to the topof the building, which gives an impression of being swollen fromtension (entasis). The peristyle columns are more than 10 meterstall, inclining faintly toward the center of the building at the top.The columns at the corners of the temple are around 6 cm larger indiameter compared to other columns. The RomanPantheon has a dome structureits entrance is designed with a portico, which is held by eightcolumns across holding the pediment that holds the inscription toAgrippa (Stamper66). The structure also hasan oculus that lights the building without the need of an artificiallighting.The dome varies thicknesswise, from 4 feet at the top to 21 feet atthe base. Besides, the appearance of the Palladio Villa Rotonda isthat it has four facades. Its design presents a square plan havingporticoes that project from every façade. Every portico has stepsthat lead up and usually opens via a meager corridor or cabinet tothe central hall that has a circular dome. Besides, every portico haspediments that are graced by statues of the classical deities. On theother hand, the pediments are each held by six ionic columns. Thestructure has an emerging dome at the center, over a central,circular hall. Most of the design of the Palladio Villa Rotonda hasbeen influenced by the Roman Pantheon (Gelernter64). Surrounding the outside façade, are many statues. On the otherhand, the graves` public service building represents a symmetricalbuilding having fouroff-white, stucco-faced rectangular facades that featurereinterpreted classical elementslike belvederes, pilasters, and over-scaled keystones. This buildingis constructed on a two-story base, which is suggestive of a Greekpedestal that splits it into classical three section partition ofbase, body and top. Besides, the graves` public service building hasalso different colors that tend to tie the building with its locationand environment. For instance, color green matches with the ground.
TheGreek Parthenon chief function was sheltering the monumental statueof Athena, which was made by Pheidias from ivory and gold (Beard82). It was also used as a temple and as a national symbol. Theoriginal purpose of the Roman Pantheon is not known however, thepantheon was dedicatedas a temple to all Greek gods.The Palladio Villa Rotunda has a function based on its location itis locatedin a region surrounded with hills.In this case, the Palladio Villa Rotonda acts as a unique view everyportico is a place from which one can contemplate the changingspectacle nature. Besides the Palladio has also functioned as aresidential place indeed, it is perhaps one of the best recognizedof the many known country houses constructed in the Veneto during thesixteenth century. The function of the graves` public servicebuilding was to bring postmodernism architecture into existence.Through the designs that did not follow most of the modernarchitectural designs, the building sought to bring a new idea ofpostmodernism into existence in the field of architecture (Gelernter42).
TheGreek Parthenon stylistic conventions have now become the model ofClassical architecture, while its style has been influencingarchitecture for centuries after it became built. The Greek Parthenonwas a reflection of the pride that Athens had in thinking ofthemselves, their godess and town since it was constructed aftertheir excellence. Therefore, it influenced others in respecting therulers and gods. The RomanPantheon is a reflection of the architectural advancements during thetime of the late Roman Empire.Through the use of ancient Roman temples as a model, the palladiovilla rotunda integrate religious overtones into a secular space.Besides, palladio villa rotunda utization of classical elements isinfluencial since it stresses a universal architectural language.Although the Palladio villa rotunda consciously recalls some ancientRoman classical models, its innovative design will have a lastinginfluence for the future generations of architectural works in Italyand abroad. The graves` public service building has an influence onthe profound American architecture. It helped in bringing classicismback, which resulted in bringing better buildings.
TheGreek Parthenon tends to epitomize all the ideals of the Greekthought during the highest point of the Classical period throughartistic means. The ideals of the Greek culture and attention todetails were perfectly represented in the proportions of the buildingand architectural elements. Therefore, it can be viewed as a nationalsymbol since it identified with the ideals of the Greek culture. TheParthenon also had a reflection of the Greek society as havingpowerful rulers since the building was meant for the powerfulgoddess. The size of the Roman Pantheon stressed the power and Romanduty. Besides, there is celestial symbolism present in the Pantheon.The Roman power and celestial symbols could be associated with theperspective of the far reaches of the empire. The Roman Pantheon isalso attributed with inspiring other buildings like Thomasjefferson’s rotunda and Pantheon in Paris. The religiousimplications of the palladio villa rotunda are conspicuous in theinterior. Inside the palladio villa rotunda is a colorful ad clearspace, which seems more like a church compared to a household.Indeed, most of the paintings explicitly make connections to thereligious life of Almerico. This is critical to the society since itis brings a reflection of the Christian virtues like chastity andtemperance, which were associated with Almerico. The design of thePalladio villa rotunda also reflects the humanist values of theRenaissance architecture. The graves` public service building is arepresentation of postmodernism in the society, thus the buildingreflects postmodern architecture. Despite the criticisms of thebuilding, it has helped in bringing postmodern American architecture.The graves` public service building also had a significance to thesociety since it helped in bringing out the ideas of postmodernistsinto existence. Indeed, the ideas of postmodern architecture becameexpressed through the graves` public service building.
Beard,Mary. TheParthenon.London: Profile Books, 2010. Print.
Gelernter,Mark. AHistory of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural andTechnological Context.Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999. Print.
Stamper,John W. TheArchitecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire.New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.