Case Study 1 Individual Level of Analysis

CaseStudy 1: Individual Level of Analysis

CaseStudy 1: Individual Level of Analysis

Differencesin individual characteristics are critical in the workplace, becausethey are the key determinants of the manner in which people react orrespond to different situations in the organization. However, it isthe primary responsibility of the management to evaluate andunderstand different traits of the employees (Au, 2012). This paperwill identify relevant concepts and theories, explain specificcharacteristics and situations relevant to the case, relevance ofidentifying and understanding individual characteristics, pros andcons of different incidents and situations, and make the necessaryrecommendations that will address different challenges affectingPPME.

Conceptsand theories

Thereare two sets of theories of motivation that are relevant to the casestudy. First, the reinforcement theory is based on Skinner’sconcept of operant conditioning, which holds that behavior adopted byan individual can be considered as a function of its outcome (SaylorFoundation, n.d.). Secondly, the theory of equity, which holds thatequity in an organizational content, can be determined by comparingthe input-output ratio of a given entity with the similar ratio of areferent (Saylor Foundation, n.d.). Apart from these theories, thereare two concepts that are closely related to the case. The firstconcept is diversity, which refers an ever increasing geographicaland cultural diversity in the workplaces (Saylor Foundation, n.d.).The second concept is the work attitude, which refers to anassortment of factors that indicates whether employees are satisfiedwith their job or not.

Specificcharacteristics, incidents, and situations that address the concepts

Thetheories and concepts aforementioned have a direct relationship withdifferent situations and characteristics of employees at PRME. Thetheory of reinforcement relates to the incident in which RaviVarghese is promoted to the position of the director of sales,heading a group of 25 people. It is stated that Ravi was promotedfollowing a review of his performance as a sales person, whichattracted the attention of the executives. This is a positivereinforcement that is intended to motivate Ravi and ensure that hekeeps up the spirit of hard work and dedication. According to SaylorFoundation (n.d.) Positive increases the frequency of the tendency ofan individual to repeat a given behavior. This means that Ravi islikely to work harder following a positive reinforcement throughpromotion.

Thetheory of equity, especially the concept of employees’ reaction toperceived unfairness relates to a case study situation in which Mr.Tom expresses his resentment about the latest bonus and otherbenefits issued by PRME. It is possible that Mr. Tom perceives thatthe set of benefits issued by the company are not commensurate withhis input. This a potential risk because employees who have perceivedinequality often react by reducing the quality of their job or theoverall performance at work (Saylor Foundation, n.d.).

Theconcept of diversity and diversity management address the casesituation in which the PRME Company has recruited employees ofdifferent races and from different geographical locations. Forexample, Ravi is Indian while Brad was a resident of Iowa beforemoving to the East. Increasing efficiency in a diverse workforce is achallenge given the fact that people from different geographical andcultural backgrounds have different beliefs and values that mayinfluence their actions and the decision making processes atworkplaces. However, understanding cultures that are different fromone’s own is one of the key diversity management strategies thatcan help organizations overcome challenges associated with theincrease in the popularity of the concept of globalization (SaylorFoundation, n.d.).

Theconcept of workplace attitude addresses the case situations in whichsome employees express negative attitudes that influence theirbehavior in the workplace. For example, Lydia has a negative attitudetowards the formal operating procedures, which is likely to affecther established record of excellent performance. Apart from thenegative attitudes some employees can express positive attitude andbehavior that are most needed by the organization. For example, Ravihas a “Can-do-attitude” that helps him accept even the difficultand challenging assignments in good faith. Positive attitude atplaces of work is a product of healthy relationship with co-workers,actual work performance, and the way an individual is treated byothers (Saylor Foundation, n.d.).

Relevanceof identifying and understanding individual characteristics

Identificationand understanding individual differences in traits at workplace isparamount given the fact that different people have different valueorientations that are determined by their respective personalities(Au, 2012). Personality comprises of relative thoughts, stablefeelings, and behavioral patterns held by individuals. This is one ofthe key factors that differentiate an individual from other people.Understanding the traits of an individual gives a hint about how anindividual will probably feel or act in different situations (Au,2012). For example, understanding the Tom’s characteristics canenhance the management’s understanding on how he is likely to reactto different compensation and benefits packages.

Prosand cons of incidents and situations

Employeemotivation through promotion is important because it increases theirperformance. This means that Ravi’s performance will improvefollowing his promotion as the directors of the sales unit. Theincrease in the employee diversity is a situation that will increasethe difficulty of managing the workforce. However, a properly manageddiversity will help PRME penetrate different mark segments. Positiveemployees’ attitudes benefit the organization by increasing theirjob satisfaction and their performance (like in the case of Ravi)(Saylor Foundation, n.d.). Negative employee attitude, on the otherhand, harms the organization by reducing their job satisfaction andperformance.


Thepresent study makes three recommendations that can help PRME addressthe current challenges and take advantage of the availableopportunities. First, the company should give incentives that arecommensurate with the contribution made by each employee towards itssuccess. For example, the bonus and sale commission given to eachemployee should reflect their effort since this will reduceresentments from workers, such as Tom. Secondly, PRME should continuefocusing on increasing and managing its workforce diversity. Thismeans that the company should continue recruiting individuals fromdifferent geographical and cultural backgrounds since this will helpit succeed in spite of the increase in challenges associated withglobalization. However, the recruitment of a diverse workforce shouldbe accompanied by adequate training on to ensure that employeesaccept the diversity at the workplace and address potentialchallenges associated with this diversity. Third, PRME should conducta regular assessment and evaluation of employees’ attitudes,especially the job satisfaction. This will help the company inaddressing issues related to negative employees’ attitudes, whichare likely to affect the overall performance of the organization.


Organizationalbehavior is one of the key determinants of the firms’ success in adiverse and highly competitive business environment. In the case ofPRME, the theory of reinforcement and equity will help the managementunderstand the impact of different employees’ attitudes andbehavior. The identification and understanding of employees’attitudes and behaviors is critical since it will enhance thecapacity of the management to address the underlying challengesassociated with the conduct of employees in the workplace. Behavioralchallenges associated with PRME employees’ should be addressed bygiving them compensation that is commensurate with their contributiontowards the organizational success, enhancing diversity, andevaluating employees’ attitude regularly.


Au,A. (2012). Understandingpeople at work: Individual differences and perception.San Francisco, CA: New Charter University.

SaylorFoundation (n.d.). Organizationbehavior.Washington, DC: Saylor Foundation.