Classicalconditioning is a learning behavior through association. In otherwords, two stimuli are put together to produce a learned response ina person or animal. Classical conditioning has 3 stages. There isbefore condition, during conditioning and after conditioning. In thefirst stage, unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditionedresponse (UCR). This means that a stimulus produces an unlearnedbehavior. During conditioning, a stimuli which produces no responseis associated with unconditioned stimuli and now becomes conditionedstimuli (CS). Finally, after the conditioning, the conditionedstimulus (CS) now becomes associated with unconditioned stimuli (UCS)to form conditioned response (CR) (Chance, 2013). A good example ofclassical conditioning would be the reaction of salivating at thesight or at the smell of the aroma from good food. The food which isthe unconditioned stimuli (CS) produces an unconditioned responsefrom the nostrils leading to salivation (CR). The next time I walknear a restaurant the aroma becomes the conditioned stimuli (CS)which now produces a conditioned response (CR) that leads tosalivating.

Operantconditioning, which is also known as instrumental conditioning, is aform of learning in which individual behavior is modified byconsequences (Chance, 2013). I have a two year old nephew who is ofcourse not well behaved. I do not like the fact that he is naughtyand cannot seem to obey any of the commands given to him despite thefact that he understands the instructions. Therefore, I am planningto change this by rewarding him with a gift to encourage his behaviorand the gift would be a positive reinforcement. In implementing thechange I would establish the bad behavior first. Secondly, I wouldfind out what gifts my nephew appreciates and then I will justexecute the plan. This means, if he behaves he gets his reward and ifhe does not he gets some sort of punishment. My chances of successare 50-50% because my nephew is still young and he may not respondwell to the gift depending on his mood and whether he is hungry.


Chance,P. (2013). Learningand Behavior.Cengage Learning