Assignment 3



Gaysand lesbian rights have been at the center of political campaigns forseveral years. The major political parties have always differed intheir views on this subject. The Republicans argue that marriages ofsame sex are a violation of societal morals while democrats advocatefor the rights of all people, including the choice of marriagepartners, whether gay or lesbian. Many people have come out to defendtheir rights that they want them recognized and legalized. Theirstrategy is to use the law courts that will give clarificationconcerning the bill of rights for interest groups. The congress maybe pushed to pass bills to recognize same sex marriages. The groupcannot be ignored, especially by the political actors because of itslikelihood to create a political move across the states.

Theinfluence of interest groups in policy making cannot be ignored.These groups provide access to citizens at local, state and nationallevels. Interest groups do not represent the whole society, but onlya fragment of the people. The US government claims to encourage highlevels of democracy. The current government drew much support fromits position to support the small group`s interests like gays andlesbians. The government is somehow compelled to support thismovement in order to secure future support. Democracy dictates that anation takes care of both the majority and minority groups. Interestgroups, therefore, play a positive role in a democratic politicalsystem and despite the number of people represented in the interestgroup, their rights should be accorded.


OnJune 23, 2003, Grutter v. Bollinger, the Supreme Court made adecision to uphold affirmative action on in university admission. TheSupreme Court upheld that admission to the university should be basedon the race so as confer education rights to diverse populations. Thecourt ordered the review of the policy outlining admissionrequirements at the University of Michigan Law School, which wasbased on the point system. The court ordered for a more formalizedapproach that would consider individual applicants as opposed togiving additional points to applicants from minority groups (Brunner&amp Rowen, 2007). The judge asserted that affirmative action isconstitutionally created in order to take care of minority, whoserights are likely to be eroded by the majority groups.

Thepurpose of affirmative action is not to give victory to minoritygroups through a political process but to create an avenue in whichtheir issues can be resolved without the majority winning bypermanently stacking the political process on the minority. African-Americans should be recognized as full citizens of the UnitedStates and be accorded rights similar to other Americans. They havesimilar abilities and capabilities just like other citizens and insome aspects they perform better than native and white Americans.Special positions should not be allocated to any group. Thisindicates to them that they are inferior to other people, thuscreating a division on racial lines. This presents a counterdiscrimination because the whites feel discriminated against theblacks. The society is polarized more thus encouraging racism.


Digitalmedia stand out as an important component for modern politicalcampaigns. Political parties use internet and database technologiesto organize volunteers, raise money, research about the oppositionand gather intelligence about voters. Political elites use theinternet to build a network of political actors and voters at thegrassroots, research on people’s opinions on public policies andcandidates’ history. Are there biases in the use of digital media?The perception of biases in covering political candidates is notbased on valence news coverage, but on increasing news self-coverage(Brunner &amp Rowen, 2007). Digital media have allowed candidates tomedia cover themselves. Only the conservative will perceive the wholemedia industry as being biased.


Majordifferences arise between different political parties. Major issues,political parties differ include abortion, minimum wage, pensionbenefits, military strength, gay and lesbian rights and size of thegovernment. The smaller political parties hold ideologies that tosome extent agree and to another extent differ from the majorpolitical parties. The Democrats and the Republicans are the mammothpolitical parties. They have survived for many years and theirpopularity denies a third party a chance to win a major election.Several reasons may account for lack of success for third parties.First is the principle of the winner-take-all, in that the candidatewith majority votes wins despite the margin. Second, third partiesfail to meet the criteria of obtaining ballot access in many states.


Itis the responsibility of the state to ensure the security of citizensand other people within the boundaries of the nation. The citizensshould also play a role for their own security and help thegovernment in its endeavors to provide security. However, in suchattempts, the fundamental rights of the citizens should be upheld.Since the introduction of the Patriot Act in 2011, there has been aclamor on violation of the rights of the citizens. For example,rights to privacy are violated several times by the intelligencebodies with the reasons of intercepting information related toterrorism.


Ina democratic society, it is wrong to treat people on the basis oftheir race. Equal opportunities should be presented to all people.Affirmative action is detrimental to achievements and brings afeeling of inferiority among those who are favored by the policy.They are placed in a lower rank and therefore doubt their abilitiesand intelligence. Racial discrimination cannot be fought throughpolicies that give preference to some races. If it is aboutrecruiting for job positions, promotions, awarding of tenders orcontracts and admission to universities and colleges, common criteriashould be adopted so as to accord equal rights to everyone regardlessof their race.


Povertyeradication is an important state engagement. Both federal and stategovernments have done much to eradicate poverty in the United States.Consequences of poverty are severe when children grow in poverty,their development and well-being is adversely affected and thislimits their academic success as well as educational opportunities. Apoor nation is less productive and social costs are usually high.People spend a lot of money in hospitals. The cases of crime are morewitnessed in poor societies and much money is spent in court cases inpursuit of freedom. Crime and insecurity could make cities and townsinhabitable.


Theworld in the 21stcentury is witnessing power revolution. The G7 is losing itsdominance over the world economy with China, Brazil, India and Russiacomes up strongly and their influence is being felt across the globe.In few years to come, the dollar may not be influential in the worldeconomy because other currencies will reduce it greatly. Economicsanctions may present a twist when affected countries shift theirinterest to the nations from east. In this new dispensation, USgovernment will remain strong only if it amends its foreign policy toreduce sanctions and military power and strengthen its ties withtrade partners.


Brunner,B., &amp Rowen, B. (2007). Timelineof Affirmative Action Milestones.New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.