Annotated Bibliography



Shapira-Lishchinsky,O. (2014). Simulations in nursing practice: toward authenticleadership. Journalof Nursing Management22, 60-69.

Theauthor of this article is professionally associated with thedepartment of Educational Administration, Leadership and Policy,School of Education at the Bar-Ilan University. The chief issue beinginvestigated in this article entails the incorporation of teamsimulations for authentic leadership. According to the author, thereis not enough evidence to indicate that team simulations may enhanceethics in the workplace by mitigating the number of errors. This isbecause previous studies focused on clinical aspects, but not theethical experiences of nurses or on the benefits of authenticleadership. Therefore, the purpose of the author in this article isto consider the ethical experiences of nurses in order to investigatethe benefits of team simulations for authentic leadership in nursing.

Theinvestigation involves 50 nurses from 10 Israeli hospitals and HMOsin central Israel. The nurses were divided into 10 groups consistingof five nurses each. There were 50 simulation sessions, every lessonof simulation lasting 45 minutes this comprised of 35 minutes ofdiscussion and 10 minutes of role playing. Every simulation meetingincluded 2-3 simulation sessions. Data concerning nurses’ ethicalexperiences were collected from the groups and analyzed based on theground theory and ATLAS.TI 5.0 software was used.

Thereis a theoretical model underlying the article the authenticleadership model. In describing authentic leadership, it is describedto have four components that explain it these include balancedprocessing, internalized moral perspective, relational transparency,and self awareness. The disciplines associated with this articleinclude psychology, nursing, and business. This is because itinvolved ethical dilemmas, involved nursing aspects, and usedbusiness knowledge in gathering and analyzing data.

Thefindings of the article revealed that there are four core simulationbenefits, which are relational transparency, self awareness, balancedprocessing, and internalized moral perspective. On the other hand,concerning the ethical dilemmas of nurses, the findings of thearticle indicate that the primary consideration in dealing withethical dilemmas entailed caring, either for patients or othernurses. Therefore, the findings revealed that team simulations can bebeneficial to nursing.

Oneof the weaknesses in the author’s argument concerning thesignificance of the conclusions is that nurses do not usually havetime for discussing their authority and power-conflict, which arisesas a result of their ethical dilemmas (Shapira-Lishchinsky, 2014).This implies that the findings may not be effective in indicatingthat team simulations promote authentic leadership. A furtherresearch can be done in other disciplines in order to investigatewhether the findings hold. In addition, most nurses act in accordanceto the traditional paradigm of nurse deference and doctor dominance,which indicates that team simulation, is likely to show the benefitsindicated. This is an indication that the findings had gaps since itdid not use another discipline to test whether the findings willhold. However, the study would be of immense importance in enhancingoutcomes in nursing leadership.

Nurseleaders can use the study in enhancing nursing professionalismthrough getting an understanding that incorporation of teamsimulation is likely to have the benefit of self-awareness,internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, and balancedinformation processing. Through such an understanding, the nurseleaders will not hesitate incorporating team simulation in nursing.Therefore, during trainings, the nurse leader will utilize team basedsimulation in order to realize authentic leadership this issignificant to nursing since it will enhance and transform nursingprofessionalism.


Shapira-Lishchinsky,O. (2014). Simulations in nursing practice: toward authenticleadership. Journalof Nursing Management22, 60-69.