ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Alexanderthe great was born in Pella, the capital of Macedonian to a king ofMacedonia. The expansion of Phillip 2 kingdom, the unfolding tale ofexcitement and glory is the boyhood of Alexander. While still young,Alexander proved himself ready to share in the adventures of themilitary. He was left in charge of Macedonia while he was onlysixteen years (Waldemar & Lawrence, 2011).
Inmerely ten years, Alexander the great subjugated his famous world. After he had died, the people who followed him initiated a violentthou a creative new world that was based on the culture of theGreece. King Phillip 2 of the Macedonia, a kingdom found in north ofGreece, subjugated all the city- states of Greece. When he gotkilled in 336 B.C, his son Alexander succeeded him. The teachers ofGreek, who among them was Aristotle the great philosopher, had taughtthe young king. As a seasoned warrior, he had escorted his father asa cavalry commander on military campaigns.
Accordingto Waldemar & Lawrence (2011), Alexander solidified his power athome and aggressively crushed a rebellion by the Greek city-state. Hethen made plans to free the cities of Greek in Asia Minor, and thatis today known as turkey from Persia, and to discipline the Persiansfor tearing down Athens earlier. Then, the Persians were ruled byDarius 3. During the spring of 334 B.C, Alexander took thirty-fivethousand men of Macedonian force across the Hellespont, a thin straitthat divides Europe and Asia. When he got there, he pierced hisjavelin on the ground, which meant his new empire was going to be wonby a spear.
Alexanderdid not face a lot of trouble defeating the Persians at Asia Minorsince Darius did not command his troop personally. But when his armyand he got to Gordium city, Darius confronted a confounding mystery. In Gordium city, an ancient king had a tied a complicated on achariot. According to the tale, a person who was able to untie theknot would govern the world. Several people had tried, but none wasable to untie the knot. Alexander was able to solve the mystery inhis style: he used his sword to slice the knot into two.
Alexandertook his army to south via Jerusalem to Egypt, who gave in withoutfighting. While there he consulted the oracle of Egyptian who he saidcalled him the son of Zeus, and the king of the gods of Greek. Before Alexander left Egypt, he commanded a new city calledAlexandria to be built. In the future, it would be the centerof a big Greek-based civilization.
In331 B.C, he attacked Mesopotamia and defeated Darius 3 decisively,and made him flee the battlefield. The invading king detained thecapital of Babylon, Mesopotamia and declared himself king of Asia,king of Babylon, and king of the four famous quarters ofthe world. Next, he went to Persian homeland. There, he spared thecapital of Persia, Susa, since the surrendered. However, he burnt thePersepolis’ great palace city, so as to revenge the destruction o fAthens by Persians. The darius’ threat had be got rid. Satraps,the provincial governor executed him, in the hope he would find favorwith Alexander. Alexander got married to Roxanne, who was thedaughter of the Darius satraps. With no great army to stop him,Alexander took lands that were next to Caspian Sea. Going on with hisconquest, he went to eastward, which is today called Afghanistan andthe crossed, the Indus River to west India. He had the will to go on,but he stopped since his men complained they would never go back home(Waldemar & larwrence, 2011).
Afterconquering the famous world in ten years, he took his men back toPersia. When they got to Susa, he made a mass marriage celebrationbetween several of his men and women from Persia. Even if he wasmarried to Roxanne, he still married Darius’ daughter. The diversemarriages carried out in Susa, were a part of hid plans to fuse theGreek, Asian, and Macedonian peoples into one common empire.
Alexander,just like the Greeks, he regarded the Asians to be barbarians. Evenso, he put effort to incorporate some of their cultures to make a wayfor his new empire smooth. He stared to dresses the Persian clothes,and he needed his men to do the same thing. He stated that everybodyshould the practice of the Persians of lying on the floor whennearing him on the throne. Also, he appointed satraps of Darius asthe provincial officials and he also included some soldiers fromPersian into his Macedonian army.
WhenAlexander returned to Babylon in 323 B.C, he referred to himself asan invisible god. He made strategies on how to conquer North Africaand Arabia, establish great cities and join all the people heconquered into a big brotherhood. However, his dream ended when hegot down with a fever and died suddenly at 33 years of age. He didnot have a plan as to who, who inherit his kingdom. Roxanne, hisPersian wife, gave birth to a son after he died. Also, he had anillegitimate half-brother who was mentally incompetent. The generalsof Alexander in Babylon called the successors who arrived atcompromise (Waldemar & Lawrence, 2011). The called the newborn ofAlexander and his half-brother the co-kings, and one of thesuccessors ruling their names temporary.
Inconclusion, despite the views, ideals, or motives of Alexander, therewas Greek ideas and language extension to the non-Greek found inMiddle East. The destruction of Persian monarchy by Alexander createdopportunities for merchants, engineers, administrators, soldiers, andthose who went with Alexander and his successors took part in the newpolitical unity that was based on the principles of monarchy. Afterhe had died, his successors used force to build military monarchiesthat conquered the Hellenistic world. Dictatorial power became theusual feature of the Hellenistic monarchies and became part ofpolitical legacy of Alexander. It is clear that his dream of anempire motivated the Romans who became the heir of his legacy.Alexander did not just leave a political legacy, but also a culturalone that gave results to literature, art, language and architecturewhich stretched out through the Middle East. The urban centers whichAlexander and his successors founded became the springboard for thespread of Greek culture that fused throughout the Middle East(Waldemar & Lawrence, 2011). The legacy of Alexander formed thefusion and clash of various cultures, which was the main feature ofthe Hellenistic world.
Waldemar,H. & Lawrence, A. T. (2011). Alexanderthe Great : a New History,Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons