Aggressionas a Psychological Concept
Thepurpose of this paper is to describe and model aggression as aconcept of psychology. The concept of aggression is significant tothe nursing field. It generates knowledge that facilitatestheoretical model that drives effective prevention and interventionapproaches. The paper reviews different forms of aggression. It alsodescribes the measurement and manifestation of aggressions. Thepapers hypothesis is, “Aggression is sometimes regarded asself-protective and at times destructive. Secondly, is whetheraggression is a kind of disease and is it curable.” The paper seeksto explain the importance of aggression and its impacts. Theliterature review addresses on the wider concept of aggression andits scholarly rationales. The paper will discuss measurement,consequences, and manifestation of aggression. The three aspects willhelp to address the hypotheses of the research.
Aggressionas a Psychological Concept
Thepaper discusses aggression as a concept of psychology. Aggression isa noun that defines the act of an aggressive behavior. Aggressivebehavior encompasses the physical or verbal attack (Testani, Chen,McCauley, Kimmel, & Shannon, 2010). Aggression may be eitherdestructive or constructive. In adults, aggression seems a clear signof mental disorder. Aggression tends to conform to mental illness.This is attributed to the fact that many mental disorders alsomanifest aggressive behaviors. Similarly, aggression causes damagesin the case of explosive personality disorders (Testani et al.,2010). It also causes self-damage such as leading to suicide.Scholars argue that aggressive behavior is a learnt behavior whileothers see it as innate. The paper aims at discussing differentmanifestation and forms of aggression. The paper goes further todescribe the consequences and causes of aggression in humans.
Aliterature review will be of significance for future learners. Forinstance, better understanding of aggression and its causal factorswill prevent its negativity in the future. Aggression is apersonality disorder (Testani et al., 2010). It affects how peoplethink, interact, and feel. People who experience this disorder facedifficulty whenever they socialize. They also have problems informing stable relationships with anyone. For example, an aggressivepartner in a marriage tends not to have a long-term relationship.Aggression, therefore, may end up breaking families in one way or theother. The complications occur on daily life situations. People whodo not open up end up being affected more. They apparently believethat keeping to them solves the situation. Aggression most of thetime appears at late stages.
Apassive aggression is the most tormenting form of aggression. Aperson suffering from it always tends to hide from others. They onlythink of solving the issue on their own. Romantic relationships withpassive aggression face more difficulties. It is so since mostdynamic people have adverse characters. They are secretive,defensive, mistrustful, and suspicious. Aggression seems not to haveany cure, as they are not disease.
Physicalaggression can sometimes lead to injury and violence. Nurses in theemergency unit in hospitals may face negative aggression. MedicalProfessionals verbally abuse, assault, and threaten nurse. Early lifeinterventions by nurses seem to reduce aggressions in teenagers. Theycan be of significant in reducing the rate of aggressive criminalactivities in the society.
Thepaper aims to address what aggression appears in a society. Thepapers hypothesis is, “Aggression is sometimes regarded asself-protective and at times destructive. Secondly, is whetheraggression is a kind of disease and is it curable.” The paper seeksto determine on whether aggression results to criminal activities.
Aggressionseems to be a world trending physical disorder. Some scholars view itas a disease while others contradict.
Aggressivebehavior that appears early in childhood is linked to part ofstandard development process. The disorder tends to change throughouta person’s lifestyle. It occurs when children lack verbal skills.When these skills develop, they become useful for peacefulcommunication. Similarly, they may serve offensive purposes.Outbursts of anger, mostly peak between 18 and 24 months of age. Theydecrease gradually by five years of age. Most children experiencetheir onset of aggression when they turn two years. Signs of earlyaggressive behavior include screaming, crying, biting, kicking, andbreaking objects. During this stage, intention is very instrumental.
Parent’sauthority and their unrealistic expectations seem to be the cause ofearly childhood aggressive behavior. Peers become source ofaggression when children start social interactions. During thisstage, behaviors such as fighting and bullying occur. Severe violenceoccurs mainly during adolescence (Luo, Yu, & Yang, 2011). Theyinclude the use of knives and gang fights. Te use of guns tends toescalate during the late adolescence stage. Adolescence socializedaggressions, usually, involve cooperative stealing, truancy, gangactivities (Shaver, 2011). In adulthood, physical aggressionescalates. They include practices of assault, rape, robbery, and evenhomicide. The main characteristic of aggressive behaviors through allthis stages is due to autonomic arousal (Hood, Johnson, &Sommers-Flanagan, 2007).
Thefight-flight syndrome is due to stimulation of the autonomic nervoussystem. The syndrome is the one responsible for physical action.Proactive aggression tends to reflect the manifestation ofpsychopathic characteristics. In addition, the reactive aggressionresults from the reality of distortion and characteristics ofschizophrenia spectrum (Hood et al., 2007).
Psychologistsuse different ways to measure aggression. The most popular is the useof rating scales by child’s mother or schoolteachers. A self-reportmeasure is the frequently used measure of aggression. The measure wasthe most highlighted in the previous research study. However, theBuss-Durkee hostility inventory emerges as the most favorite out ofall. Nurses measure aggression by observation. For instance, an OvertAggression Scale that measures four types of behaviors of psychiatricpatients by the nurse raters. Similarly, use of a subtype scale canmeasure aggressions. It classifies aggression into four differenttypes (Hood et al., 2007).
Mostpeople believe aggression to be the primary cause of variousincidences. They may include damages, crime, and other activities.Aggression may be either destructive or constructive. Negative timeand instrumental aggression consequences tend to be inevitable (Liu,2004). They may affect both the victim and perpetrator. Aggressivechildren in schools are likely face rejection from their peers (Luoet al., 2011)
Accordingto Liu(2004), adults and adolescents lead to multiple damages. They causephysical injuries, psychological and even emotional trauma. Forexample, in 1990, physical injuries reports were on the rise. Nursesmostly treat the injuries in hospitals. The worst consequence ofaggression seems to be lethality. A 1990 report indicates of loss oflife caused by violent victimization (Shaver, 2011). Positiveaggressions have potential positive outcomes. They serve to protectand preserve the individual. Moreover, aggression increases andindividual’s dominance in a social environment.
Aggressiondifferences in individuals are due to learning. Aggression is alsoconstructive as it helps nurses in a number of ways. The dailyaggressive activities nurses face improves their dealing withaggression. The vast experience makes them to be able to detect andhandle any form of aggression. The social and biological causes ofaggression tend to occur at early stages. Aggressions infringedestructive activities in the society. They may include crime, rapeand more risky activities. The disorder is not a disease and may leadto an eruption of conditions that need treating.
Hood,A. B., Johnson, R. W. &Sommers-Flanagan, J. (2007). Assessmentin counseling: A guide to the use of psychological assessment.Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Liu,J. (2004). Concept analysis: aggression. Issuesin mental health nursing,25,7, 693-714.
Luo,Y. X., Yu, Y. Z., & Yang, Y. (2011). Correlation study ofaggressive behavior and explicit self-esteem among middle schoolstudents. ChineseJournal of School Health,8,9, 1-34.
Shaver,P. (2011). Humanaggression and violence: Causes, manifestations, and consequences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Testani,J. M., Chen, J., McCauley, B. D., Kimmel, S. E., & Shannon, R. P.(2010). Potential effects of aggressive decongestion during thetreatment of decompensate heart failure on renal function andsurvival. Circulation,122,1, 265-272.